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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



MUSEUM or COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



GIFT OF 




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NOV 
Vol. II. No. 1. 



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JAN., 1898 




liJ JL^L^II^ 1 11^ 



OF THE 







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FuDiislied in tlie Interests ol OrnltHoloao in MictiiQan, 



Grand Rapids, Michigan. 



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CONTENTS. 

The Northern Raven, Chase S. Osborn, 1 

The Bluebird's Plea, Frances Margaret Fox, ..... 2 

Fossil Birds, — A Brief Eeview of Present 

Knowledge, C. A. AVhittemore, 4 

General Notes, 7 

Large Number of Cowbird's Eggs in an Oven 
Bird's Nest 

American Goshawk in Kent County. 



Additions to the Avifauna of Kalamazoo Co. , 
Michigan. 

Bachinann's Sparrow in Southern Ohio. 

Personals, 8 

Editorials 9 

Chase S. Osborn, L. Vf. Watkins, 10 

Gleanings from Late Periodicals^ 10 

The Annual Meeting, 11 

Officers and Members of the Michigan 

Ornithological Club, = 12 




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The new and the right way between Midland 
Lakes to Western Ocean. Through a wonderland 
for the student, geologist and sight- seeker. With 
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The Great Northern is the only transcontinental 
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It serves meals a la coste in Palace Dining cars. 

For routes, rates and full information, call on anv 
railway agent, or address 

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and T. A. St. Paul, Minn. 




Tumwater Canyon, Wash. 



Back Numbers of this Bulletin 
can be furnished at the 
following prices only: 

Vol. \ No. 1, Jaiary, 1897, 30 cts. 
Vol. I, No. 2, April 1897, 25 cts. 
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A Very few files Of VoluDie I at 75 




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Michigan. 



New Subscriptions to 

OSPREY 

and 

M. 0. C. BULLETIN 

together for $L25. 

Eemit either to the managers of this Bulletin 
or to the Ospkey, 141 East 25th St., New York City. 

Michigan Agricultural College 

Offers special advantages to young men and young women 
desirous of obtaining a thorough training in Natural Sciences. 
It has one of the most complete libraries^along scientific lines 
in the country. Besides very large and complete collections 
of specimens in various departments. It has ten well 
equipped laboratories, each of which is under the direction 
of a specialist. The whole equipment is valued at over half 
a million dollars. 

Three Courses of study are offered, each four years in 
in length: Agricultural, Mechanical, Women's. 

Six six-week courses are offered during the winter, in 
creamery and home dairying^ sfock-feedinq, friiit-ndture, 
floriculture^ winter vegetable' gardening and four weeks in 
cheesemaking. 

Expeses very low— no tuition to residents of the state. 
Board at actual cost, etc. 
Write for catalogue. 

J. L. SNYDER, President, 

Agricultural College (P. O.), Mich. 



WOV 13 1902- 



Owing to the fact that, under the present arrangement, full poAver is given to the 
small representation of the Chib, present at the monthly meetings, to transact business 
involving the interests of the whole Club, a committee was appointed at the annual 
meeting to frame and propose amendments to the constitution to remedy this, and also 
any other matter which might seem advisable. The prevailing sentiment at this meet- 
ing seemed to have been an executive committee, whose powers shall be limited to 
minor matters and those requiring immediate attention. To help the committee in this 
work all members are requested to send their views on the following questions to the 
chairman of the committee before March 15. 

1. Should an executive committee be piovided for in the constitution ? If so, 
how large should it l^e 'i Of whom should it consist i What should be its power and 
limitation? 

2. Should this committee have power to elect members, or should they be elected 
only at the annual meeting ( 

3. Should active membership be limited ( If so, what should be the limit '( 

4. Should meetings of the whole clul) be held more than once a year ^ If but 
once a year, at what time t 

5. Should there be a change in the dues i 

6. Should the club make a collection ( If so, where shall it be kept ? And how 
will it benefit members? If not, what should be done with specimens now on hand? 

Are there any other amendments other than those covered by the above questions 
that you would propose ? 

LEON J. COLE, Chairman. 
T. L. HANKINSON. 

DEWEY A. SEELEY. 

Agricultural College, Mich., 

• Feb. 16, 1898. 



2 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



As primitive man endowed tliis bird, 
iinmed from its cry, witli mysterious and 
occult knowledge, and on down the ages 
uncanny attributes have attached to it, so 
the hunter and trapper and the Indian of 
the Upper Peninsula look upon it with 
mingled reverence and awe. The Koran 
says it was a Raven that taught Cain how 
to dispose of his murdered brother Abel, 
and in Norse mythology two Ravens sit on 
Odin's shoulder, for the purpose of being 
despatched over the world after any desired 
intelligence. 

In the Upper Peninsula most hunters 
and trappers attribute to them powers of 
both good and evil. In a more practical 
vein the hunter knows that the Raven oft- 
times well nigh destroys the deer hanging 
in the woods, and he has learned to place 
sticks criss-cross about the deer, which 
seem to suggest a trap to the Raven and 
keep it away. The hunter knows, too, that 
his wounded deer has died when he notes a 
gathering of Ravens and hears their cries, 
and he is often enabled to find game in this 
way that would otherwise be lost. The 
trapper knows that of all things the Raven 
is most apt to steal the poisoned balls of 
tallow or pieces of njeat with which he has 
baited wolves. Of course this practice is 
not a healthful one for tlie Raven, but the 
trapper isn't after the bird and so curses 
him as a "hoodoo," along with all the 
corindae. Likewise the Raven steals the 
bait from the traps and is often caught. 
The trapper places a delicate twig beneath 
tlie pan of his larger traps so that the Raven 
may not spring them, even though it may 
purloin the bait. The Indians to the far 
nortli have a myth to the effect that the first 
man to visit the earth was washed up from 
the sea during a great storm, fastened in a 
shell ; that Ravens congi-egated and by 
dint of hard work pushed the sliell bej^ond 
the reach of the receding waves, picked it 
open and rescued the prisoner, whom they 
fed and cared for after the manner of 
Elijah. So with them the Raven is a 
sacred bird and the father of the race. 
Ever since the dawn of literature the Raven 
has had a prominent part. 

Nof content with eating what carrion it 
can find in the cool northern latitude, it is 
omnivorous and dines with satisfaction upon 



young hares, fresh venison, young grouse, 
geese and ducks, rats, moles, mice, eggs, 
echini, mollusca, fruit, grain, Crustacea, 
grubs, worms, frogs, toads and fish. But 
few birds have so varied a menu. The 
Raven ''smells powder" with the same 
acute sense of the Crow and is hard to 
stalk. Above all he is the only citizen of 
the Upper Peninsula of whom it may be 
said that too much talking turned him from 
white to black, as charged in the "Story of 
Coronis." 

"The Raven once in snowy plumes was drest, 
White as the whitest Dove's imsnllied breast, 
Fair as the guardian of the capital, 
Soft as the Swan, a large and lovely fowl; 
His tongue, his prating tongue had changed him quite 
To sooty blackness from purest white." 

Chase S. Osborn. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 



The Bluebird's Plea. 

To the Michigan Mothers a7id Daughters: 

T~^LEASE do not look at me, — only 
1*^-^ listen. Do you know that once I 
J-5 was a beautiful Bluebird? Many 
nesting times have come and gone since 
then, still I have never forgotten those 
happy days ; the days when free as the 
balmy, springtime air, I believed that all 
the world was true and good," and from a 
heart bursting with joy and gratitude I 
poured forth my little song of praise and 
listened to the solos of the Bobolinks, the 
Meadowlark, the Oriole and all the wonder- 
ful woodland chorus. 

There is nothing beautiful about me now. 
In fact there never has been since mv life 
was gone. After that terrible moment 
when I knew that I must die and that my 
precious nestlings would cruelly starve, I 
realized nothing again until, with returning 
consciousness, I found myself here in a 
millinery store. And since then, though 
my featiiers are fresh and my color quite 
perfect, it has seemed to me, when I have 
caught a reflection of myself in the mirror, 
that I appear, indeed, but a sad and pitiable 
victim. When one of you, on that very day, 
called me "Such a love of a bird," I could 
only look at you in wonder and reproach. 
I knew so much better, — and you, who 
pretend to know so much of love and mercy, 
to have said this ! I was dead, my joyous, 
sparkliijg life forgotten. And my dear 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



babies, too, were starved to death. We 
helpless birds liave no orphan asylums here 
on earth but we, too, have a Creator's love 
— more dear. My distracted mate is calling 
to me now, but my tiny feet are fastened 
amid lace and ribbon and my wings are 
powerless. I am your prisoner and my 
crushed life sacrificed to your pride and 
vanity. 

Oh, w^oman, a millinery store is a place 
of death ! I did not find myself here alone. 
There were hundreds of other mothers whose 
throbbing hearts were stilled aufl whose 
nests were desolate. There were Parrots, 
quite speechless, looking unnatural and 
even hideous ; and delicate Hummingbirds, 
lovingly named by the Indians, '^Living 
Sunbeams," were placed in great numbers 
upon your hats. They are such dear little 
neighbors and love their short, bright lives 
as much as you do yours. Do any of you 
think an Owl is an artistic decoration for a 
hat? Do you not know that the farmers of 
our state need all the living Owls that they 
have, and more, to guard their crops, your 
food? 

Now they tell me that you are cruel ; 
tliat you know the terrible suffering you 
cause ; that you have been told again and 
again the pitiful story of the Egret whose 
plumes you wear. But I cannot believe it. 
You seem so kind and tender-hearted. 
Would you — is there one of you who would 
take a life to make your own more happy? 
I know full well the answer. You would 
shrink in horror at the thought. Then wh}^ 
won't you stop and think of who does kill 
us and why we must die? And do we 
make you happy then ? 

If you would simply say that you are 
tired of wearing birds, there would yet be 
hope for my poor friends. I have learned 
that you once had a queer fashion of wear- 
ing wire cages under your dresses ; that 
they went out of style and you stopped 
wearing them. You could stop wearing us 
and there would be no more victims of a 
barbarous fashion. 

Once I had a tiny home in the trunk of 
an old apple tree. My mate and I were so 
happy. Perhaps we were too proud of the 
live blue eggs we so jealously guarded. 
One day a boy stole our treasures — said he 
was making a collection. He acted sorry 



when we begged and besought him to leave 
them, but he took them, and they are now 
with hundreds of other eggs on a long string 
in his house. Our hearts were broken and 
there were five less Bluebirds to make the 
summer glad. 

Another time, when our little ones were 
learning to fly, a boy with a pea shooter 
killed three of them, and he didn't seem to 
care. 

Can't you teach your boys and little 
brothers better? They will listen to you if 
you try to interest them. You know how 
to be winning. If I were a girl I would 
spend more time with my own little 
brothers. They will be the men who will 
make our laws very soon. Teach them to 
protect us. And then be sure and do your 
part — you now know what. 

If I were a woman, I should be ashamed 
to wear a dead bird. 

Since I began my existence in a millinery 
store I have belonged to several of you and 
I know that you do not realize what you 
are doing; but God will not hold yon guilt- 
less if you continue to encourage the de- 
struction of innocent bird life. The pretty 
girl who first bought me, tried to believe 
the storv told her to the eff"ect that I was a 
"made bird." But our Creator was the 
maker. 

Aside from the fact that without our help 
insects and worms would devour your land, 
your crops would fail, and your trees be 
leafless, what would the summer be with- 
out us? 

Have you no pity for those who cannot 
plead their own cause? 

Won't you save us before it is too late? 

For the sake of the little ones you love 
and all that is dear to you in your own 
homes, be merciful to us, the helpless 
"children of the air." 

If every one of you will do your best for 
us, the joyous day will soon come when the 
milliners will announce, "Birds are out." 

Frances Margaret Fox. 

Bay City. 



Mr. Geo. J. Friedrich of Brooklyn has done so ninch 
good work in the way of protecting the birds and ani- 
mals in that vicinity, that many of the people really be- 
lieve him to be a game warden. He would be an honor 
to that department, but he is only an earnest, conscien- 
tious naturalist and a fearless gentleman. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



Fossil Birds— A Brief Review of 
Present Knowledoe. 

IN onr study of ornithology it may be 
well for us to look a few moments into 
the past and learn something, if pos- 
sible, of the former existence of biid-life. 
When did birds make their first appearance? 
What other animals came into existence 
with them? Which of the grand divisions 
of earth-history saw their coming? Did 
they advance from a lower order, or did 
they suddenly mount upon the wing in their 
full-fledged glory? These are but a few of 
the questions which geology tries to an- 
swer. 

I assume that you are familiar with the 
latter subject, and know that the science of 
geology treats of the history of the earth as 
recorded in the rocks, and tries to explain 
the causes of tlie many kinds of rock-form- 
ation we see around us. You know that 




Peop. C. a. Whittemoee. 

students have carefully examined such rec- 
ords, and have constructed a chart of geo- 
logical history. The inconceivable geons of 
time indicated can not be measured in 
years, but they can be measured relatively. 
One period may be seen to be much shorter 
or longer than the one just before or fol- 
lowing. Certain features of the rocks occur 
in such regular succession that a science 
may be built around them, and the facts so 
observed may be announced as the laws of 
the world. The succession of life is regular 
from the earliest times. Some life-forms 
may be omitted in different localities, but 
the order of succession is never reversed. 
By examination and comparison of fossils, 
chiefly, this history already referred to has 



been divided into five principal eras, name- 
ly, Eozoic or Dawn Life, Palaeozoic or 
Ancient Life, Mesozoic or Middle Life,, 
Cenozoic or Ltecent Life,, and Psychozoic 
or Age of Mind. They are again sub- 
divided into seven ages, namely, Archaean 
or Age of Eozoon^ Silurian or Age of 
Livertehrates, Devonian or Age of Fishes^ 
Carboniferous or Age of Coal-plants^ 
Secondary Rocks or Age of Reptiles, the 
Age of Mammals and the Age of Man. 
Invertebrates and fishes first appeared, be- 
cause the earth could not support any 
higher forms. Then the coal-plants came, 
and it is believed that there was a super- 
abundance of carbonic acid in the air. The 
air being partly cleared of its carbon by the 
formation of coal, was rendered purer, and 
reptiles appeared. Then came the disputed 
ice-age, and drove all life before its frigid 
front. Then came the present mammalian 
fauna, and man came in with it. The first 
plants were sea-weeds ; the first animals 
were invertebrates. Before speaking of the 
appearance of birds, let us spend a few 
moments with the first reptiles. The car- 
boniferous was followed by a period of great 
changes both in life-forms and in noncon- 
formity of strata. This period was called 
Permian, and was followed by the Meso- 
zoic era or Age of Reptiles. In tliis age 
reptiles reached their culmination both in 
numbers and size of individuals. In this 
age also, was the first appearance of mam- 
mals and birds. The reptiles were large 
and beast-like ; the mammals in the begin- 
ning were small and few in numbers, and 
were most all marsupials. Mammals ap- 
peared before the birds. One would think 
that the birds came first, but we must con- 
sider them a branch of the reptilian family 
of vertebrates. Many of the reptiles had 
chai'acters which connected them with 
fishes ; others had characters we now see in 
birds. The latter class had long and strong 
hind legs and short fore legs, thus indicat- 
ing that they walked on their hind feet. 
Many of them had three toes on their hind 
feet, and made bird-like tracks. Many 
more had bird-like ankle-joints. 

The Pterosaurs or Winged Saurians were 
among the most I'emarkable aninuils that 
have been found. They had the stout body, 
the keeled breast-bone, the long, flexible 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



neck, the beak-jaws of a bird, the long 
arms and membranous win^s of a bat, 
and some reptilian characters. Sometimes 
they had a short tail, again it was a long 
tail with a vertical membranous at the end to 
use as a rudder. These horrid monsters 
varied in length, from tip to tip of wing, 
from two or three feet to eighteen or twenty 
feet. 

In Bavaria there is a kind of limestone 
used for lithographs. Tn that stone, which 
also preserves fossils in a wonderful manner, 
the remains of the oldest known bird were 
found. The first specimen was represented 
by a single feather, and to it the name 
''^Archceopteryx,^^ or Ancient feather, was 
given by Yon Meyer. A few months later, 
in 1802, a complete specimen was found. 
That it was the same species that wore the 
feather is yet a problem, but we are justified 
to believe it to be the same. The feathers 
of the wing and tail were preserved in a 
wonderful manner. It was a true bird but 
vastly different from what we now know. 
Instead of the tail as we now observe, it 
had a tail of twenty-one joints, of reptilian 
character, and a pair of feathers at each 
joint. It had teeth in sockets ; and instead 
of the hand being combined with the wing, 
two of the lingers were free and armed with 
claws. In 1873, another fine specimen was 
found and deposited in the Berlin museum. 
Birds and reptiles, so far apart now, seem 
to have been nearly alike in the middle of 
the Mesozoic era. The first Bavarian bird 
stood alone till 1870, without anything to 
connect it with living forms. In that year 
Prof. O. C. Marsh began a series of dis- 
coveries in the cretaceous strata of western 
Kansas and Colorado, which largely filled 
the gap. He has described about twenty 
species of cretaceous birds. Half of them 
were water birds, like rails, divers, cor- 
morants, but of different genera. The 
other half were toothed birds, different from 
anything we now know. These toothed 
birds were of two types. One, the 
Ilesperornis, as a representative, were 
flightless swimmers and divers, of great 
size, five or six feet from tip to tip of 
skeleton, about three feet high in standing 
position, and with only rudimentary wings. 
The other type, the Icfithyornis^ were 
smaller birds but powerful fliers. The 



species indicates a bird a little smaller than 
our Crow. The Hesperornis had teeth in 
grooves. The teeth of the IcJitJiyornis 
were in separate sockets. The stout 

maxillary bones of these early birds were 
armed as now unknown in bird-life. In 
the deep continuous grooves in which the 
Hesperornis^ teeth were set, there was but 
the faintest indication of separate sockets. 
The teeth were held in place by cartilages 
which permitted some lateral movement. 
They had pointed crowns covered with 
smooth enamel and mounted on strong 
roots. They were curved backward slightly, 
and were so reptilian in character that any 
anatomist would refer them to reptiles, did 
he find them alone. The brain of the 
Hesperornis was quite small and very 
reptilian. It was less than one-third the 
relative capacity of the Loon, a bird similar 
in habits. The sternum had no keel.^ 
The wings were represented by the humerus 
alone, and that was rudimentary, as already 
indicated. The ribs had no features differ- 
ent from modern birds. The tail was ap- 
parently composed of twelve vertebrae — 
all of which have been well preserved, ex- 
cept the tip. The last six or seven vertebrae 
were so interlocked that they had but slight 
movement. The feet and legs were admir- 
ably adapted to life in the water, and it is 
probable that the Hesperornis was more 
completely at home in the water than any 
bird known. The legs had a powerful 
backward stroke, and a quick return-motion. 
The feet and legs resemble the genus 
Podiceps more than any bird now living. 

In the Grebes the outer toe is the longest, 
while the middle one is nearly the same 
length. In the Hesperornis the outer toe 
is three or four times as strong as the mid- 
dle toe, or stronger than all the others 
combined. In its more important charac- 
ters the skull resembled that of the ostrich. 

The skull of Ichthyornis dispar, a 
representative species, was very large in 
comparison with the rest of the skeleton, 
but the brain was very small and strongly 
reptilian. The bones of the jaw — the 
rami — were separate, and united at the end 
only by a cartilage. The teeth were 
planted in distinct sockets. They were 
sharp, pointed and strongly recurved. The 
crowns were coated with enamel and the 



6 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



cutting edges were sharp, and without ser- 
rations. The humerus was well developed, 
in order to support the powerful wings. 
Some peculiar features were brought out in 
the examination of the birds of this species. 
The bi-concave vertebrae indicated an an- 
cestry even lower than the reptiles, while 
the teeth were hi^hlv specialized. Thus 
indicating that an animal may be highly 
developed in one character and yet retain 
the low features of a distant ancestor. 

Prof. Marsh has described the foregoing 
birds under nine genera and twenty species. 
About one hundred and fifty individuals 
were found and are now deposited in the 
museum of Yale College. There was a 
rich and varied avi-fauna in Mesozoic time 
and there is probability of rich discoveries in 
the future. It is very fortunate for science 
that Hesperornis regalis should be rep- 
resented by specimens as complete as any 
fossil yet found. Nearly all the bones 
were found almost as perfect as in life and 
most of them were in the natural positions. 
The birds of the second class, Icthyornis, 
were evidently aquatic, and in their power- 
ful wings and small legs and feet were 
much like our terns. 

As far back as 1835 tracks were found in 
the rocks in the Connecticut valley sup- 
posed to have been made by birds, but 
closer examination now leads to the belief 
that they were made by reptiles. It is true 
that earlier birds than those mentioned have 
been found in the Jurassic beds of Wyom- 
ing, nearly in the same horizon as the 
Bavarian find. It was a single genus, the 
Laopteryx represented by only a single 
specimen. Several birds have also been 
found in the Cretaceous beds on the 
Atlantic coast, but all these specimens were 
so fragmentary that they could not be 
easily described. Even in the first authen- 
tic Archceopteryx the head and sternum 
were missing. In the later formations 
birds are more abundant, but are more like 
the modern types. It is now generally ad- 
mitted that birds are closely related to the 
reptiles, and there can be but little doubt 
that they descended from reptilian ances- 
tors. 

In the next geological period, the 
Tertiary, a division of the Cenozoio era, 
the reptilian birds have disappeared and 



birds like those of the present are found. 
With them, however, some strange forms 
are seen. The Gastornis of the Eocene 
strata of Paris, was a bird ten feet high, 
and a link between the Waders and the 
Ostriches. I'.i France especially, the birds 
indicated a tropical climate. Parrots, 
Ibises, Flamingos, and such birds were 
found at this time. In a later period, the 
Quarternary, immediatel}'' preceding the 
human era, gigantic, wingless birds have 
been found in New Zealand and Madagas- 
car. One of them, the Dinoris gigan- 
teus, was twelve feet high, and with 
femurs three feet long. An egg of the 
Epiornis has been found, six times as 
large as the ^^g of the Ostrich. The ex- 
tinction of these birds is so recent that feet 
have been found with the dried skin yet 
upon them, and eggs yet containing the 
skeletons of chickens. It is hardly worth 
while to give a detailed list of the fossil 
birds at present known. In all, forty-six 
species have been described. The full list 
may be found in Coues' Code and Check- 
list. 

C. A. Whittemore. 
Grand Rapids. 



We are pleased to note the reply of Mr. E. Arnold 
of Battle Creek, Mich., to the rather insnltiug criti- 
cism of his article in a former issue of the Osprey. 
The criticisms should always be gentlemanly and 
kind as is Mr. Arnold's reply. No true ornithologist, 
or naturalist in any department of study, will up- 
hold the innuendo that a man is dishonest or preten- 
tious simply because he reports something which his 
critic does not himself happen to know or which he 
perhaps honestly doubts. We want all of the orig- 
inal work done possible, and should appreciate the 
kindness of those who give us the result of their ob- 
servations. When Ave are sure that a man is know- 
ingly wrong and trying to deceive, then, and only 
then, should we assail him personally or ridicule what 
he puts forth for fact. All editors should jealously 
guard their pages from any such inscientific rude- 
ness. 



In the Osprey for December, Foster & Co. of 
Ann Arbor, Mich., dealers in taxidermist's supplies, 
etc., are exposed as a fraudulent firm. We will say 
that the above firm is a thing of the past, and the 
people will no more be imposed upon by them. 
Foster, the fraudulent member, has left for parts un- 
known and cannot be located. 

L. W. W. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



GENERAL NOTES. 



Large Number of Cowbird's Eggs in an 
Oven Bird's Nest. 

Some years ago I found an Oven Bird's nest contain- 
ing eight Cowbird's eggs and only one of the owner. 

Thos. Mikesell. 
Wauseon, Ohio. 



American Goshawk in Kent County. 

About December 1st, 1897, an American Goshawk 
was taken in this vicinity by Mr. Al. Holcomb. Its 
stomach contained portions of a Ruffed Grouse. 

W. Earle Mulliken. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Additions to the Avifauna of Kalamazoo 
County, Michigan, 

Those collectors and observers of our birds who were 
readers of the columns of that worthy sheet, the Ornith- 
ologist and Oologist of 1885, will remember a list of 
birds of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. The list filled 
the year in its completion and occupied forty columns. 
It was a very fair list of the birds of our county and the 
result of the combined efforts of a number of enthusiasiic 
observers. There were embraced in the list of 1885, 
two hundred and thirty species of birds. Of these, sixteen 
species have been proven to be permanent residents, 
thirty- two species half hardy, or those which sometimes 
remain during the winter, and twenty species which may 
be termed winter residents, embracing both occasional 
and quite regular species. The remaining species of the 
list come and go in spring and autumn. 

Since the compilation of the list of 1885, we have, by 
our combined efforts, added nine species (all migrants) 
to the records as follows : Double crested Cormorant, 
Phalacrocorax dilophus ( Sivain.J , three specimens 
taken in fall, others seen. Turkey Vulture, Cathartes 
atira (Linn.), not known here till 1887, now abundant. 
We have seen flocks of eighteen and twenty seven. 
Golden Eagle, Aqidla chrysaetos (Linn.). A fine 
specimen shot by Benj. F. Syke of Kalamazoo. Yellow 
Rail, Forzana noveboracensis (Gmel.). One specimen 
secured in the autumn by Wm. O' Byrne of Kalamazoo. 
Black- crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax 
nccviiis (Bodd.J. One shot. Said to be common in 
next county south of us. Barn Owl, Strix pratincola 
Bonap. One shot by Benj. F. Syke, Swallow, tailed 
Kite, Elanoides forficatus (Linn.). One of these 
wanderers secured by Edward Arnold, of Battle Creek, 
in the southern part of our county. Kirtland's Warbler, 
Dendroica kirtlandi Baird. One secured by Mr, F. 
H. Chapin, which makes the fourth for this State, 
Orange-crowned Warbler, Helminthophila celata (Say). 
Mr. Chapin secured one specimen. 

These birds ai-e nearly all of the rarer species of the 
State list, and there are many which are abundant in 
other sections which will be found here if search is care- 
fully followed, for it is reasonable to suppose that several 
species from the prairies ot the Southwest have entered 
this section. In all probability the complete list of the 
birds of this county will be found to embrace two hun- 
dred and eighty species or more, while there is no positive 
proof that any species is now extinct within our bound- 
aries, although the Passenger Pigeon, Raven and Wild 
Turkey are now but rai^ely seen. 

Morris Gibbs. 
Kalamazoo. 



Bachmann's Sparrow in Southern 

Ohio. 

On April 2.3rd, 1897, while yet residing at South 
Webster, Ohio, I went out with a young friend to shoot 
a few squirrels, which had been seriously robbing the 
fields in the neighborhood and had become a nuisance. 
While traveling over the rough hills, deserted ore banks 
and upland pastures, I was as usual on the look-out for 
birds. The day was a delightful one, and rather warm 
for an April day. Plenty of our winter visitors — above 
all. White throated Sparrows — were still loitering in the 
rough Southern Ohio hills, while the many spring mi- 
grants were on their journey northward. It was especi- 
ally a 'warbler day." Palm, Sycamore, Black and 
White, Black throated Green, and Cerulean Warblers' 
were all present, some represented only by one or two. 
individuals, others by a dozen or more. Among the: 
most numerous and conspicuous; J, were, the Myrtle War- 
blers with their charming chant, which no words could 
express better than the word "warble." Soon, all in- 
tentions of hunting squirrels were forgotten in the observ- 
ation of bird life. Proceeding on our march we passed, 
on a hillside, an old deserted field covered with weeds. 
Through the midst of it ran a little brook boixlered by 
brush, weeds and a few solitary trees. The field itself 
was boi^dered on one side by a small patch of timbef , 
consisting of elm, hickory and black and white oaks, 
with rank undergrowth — the winter abode of Cardinals 
and Fox, Tree and VVhite-throatctl Sparrows. From out 
of this undergrowth we heard a peculiar song amidst the 
gay spring concert, but in spite of faithful watching we 
did not succeed in catching a glimpse of the bird. We 
went on for a lengthy stroll, and when returning after a 
few hours, during which time we had the pleasure of 
greeting a Lark Sparrow (quite rare in these Southern 
Ohio hills, though on the increase in 1897) pouring forth 
its sweet song from the top of a young persimmon, we, 
upon again nearing this place, heard the same tones 
once more. We were yet a considerable distance from 
the ticket, when suddenly a little bird flew out of it into 
the utmost top of a small tree near the little brook and 
delivered a rich, thrilling song, which abruptly ended 
with a few lower tones. The song was exceedingly loud 
for the size of the bird, and as I had never heard it be- 
fore, I listened eagerly for awhile, finally though, when 
the bird altempted to fly, I raised the gun and fired. I 
succeeded in getting the bird, but the rough shot tore it 
to such an extent, that it was impossible to prepare it for 
a specimen. The yellow edge of the wing and the pe- 
culiar appearance of the bird in general, immediately at- 
tracted my attention. At home I identified it as a 
Bachmann's Sparrow. To make sure this identification 
I kept the body and secured a fine skin of this species 
from Mr. Chas. K, VVorthen, (June 5, 1896, 
Charleston, S, C) Laying skin and body side by side 
they proved to be exactly aUke. On May 6th, 1897, I 
was at the same locality again I heard the song fre- 
quently, but the birds would not leave the brush. With 
the aid of a good field glass I was able to watch one pair 
for only a short time (45 minutes) during a wait of two 
hours, as they were exceedingly shy and approach almost 
impossible. These were the last I have seen. Never 
before nor after this did I see or hear them. Whither 
they migrated or what became of them I know not ! 
Recently I have secured a copy of Dr. Wheaton's "Birds 
of Ohio," and found that Bachmann's Sparrow had 
never been seen nor recorded in Ohio before this. The 
remnants of the one I had shot, I had thrown away, not 
knowing then the full importance of my discovery. Next 
spring I shall make an extra trip to Sciota County (South 



8 



Bulletin of the Michigan Oenithological Club. 



Webster is 18 miles N. E. of Portsmouth) and look for 
Bachmann's Sparrow again. 

Rev. W. F. Henninger, 
Waverly, Ohio. 

[We are very glad to give space to Mr. Henninger's 
interesting paper. Moral. — Never throw away any 
specimen (however poor) of which you are not well in- 
formed. We need accurate, earnest work, such as this, 
from all. — Ed.] 



A Belated Heron. 

On December 23, 1897, about daybreak, a Great Blue 
Hei"on (Ardea herodius) was killed by a policeman in 
the street on Washington Ave., Lansing, near the 
Hotel Downey. The bird was so stupid that the police- 
man easily approached and killed it with his club. 

The specimen was given to Mayor Charles A. Davis, 
who mounted it for his collection. It seems indeed a 
peculiar incident to find this large bird, which we see 
but occasionally about our swamps, marshes and lakes in 
summer, in the unnatural environment of a city street, 
and on a cold day of this coldest season of the year. 

T. L. Hankinson. 

Agricultural College. 



Mr. O. Widmann, active member of the A. O. U., 
says in Orange Judd Farmer of recent date that the 
pigeon is about the only bird that does not rear its 
young almost exclusively upon an insect diet. 



Popular Science News, under the head of "Brain 
Food," says : "The Skylark and Woodlark are al- 
most the only birds which sing as they fly." What 
is the matter with the Bobolink? 

James B. Purdy. 
Plymouth. 

[I am glad to have attention called to the inexcus- 
able nonsense in the "news" columns of some of our 
best periodicals. — Ed.] 



Mr. Dewey A. Seeley of Lansing has been elected 
president of the senior class, Michigan Agricultural 
College. 

Mr. S W. Harris has recently returned to his home 
in Hillsdale from Belvidere, 111. 

Mr. W. E. Mulliken is now the chairman of the 
Migration Committee. Please send all communications 
in regard to this work to himand not to Mr. L. Whitney 
Watkins, who has his full share of correspondence as 
editor in-chief of this bulletin. 

Mr. Charles L. Cass of Hillsdale has gone to New 
Orleans, La., on business. While there he expects to 
spend some time in collecting and studying birds. 

The first annual banquet of the Grand Rapids Game, 
Fish and Dog Protective Association was held m Sweet's 
Hotel, in that city, on January 20, 1898. This staunch 
organization, of which Messrs. Osborn and Watkins of 
our Club are members, offers $25 00 reward to anyone 
outside the association inembership who will furnish 
evidence to convict any person of violation of the game 
and fish laws in Kent Co. Good for Grand Rapids ! 
Why not Detroit, Saginaw, Lansing, etc., too? 



The Annual Meeting of the Michigan Academy of 
Science for the presentation of scientific papers and for 
other purposes, will be held in Ann Arbor, at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, March 31 and April 1 and 2, 1898. 
The Michigan Schoolmasters' Club holds its meeting at 
the same time and place, and it is probable that one -or 
more joint sessions may be arranged. 

Owing to the illness of his mother, Dr. Gibbs was 
unable to take his contemplated trip to California. 

From Mr. T. L. Hankinson's notebook: "Saw three 
muskrats and a couple ducks fly over." 

On February 7, 1898, in Chicago, 111., representatives 
from Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota 
and Illinois will meet to try and agree upon uniform 
game and fish laws for these States. Such an effort must 
be productive of much good and we sincerely wish and 
hope that an agreement may be possible. Mr. Ruthven 
Deane, of Chicago, member of the A. O. U. Committee 
on Bird Protection, will appear before this meeting to 
personally urge a carefully prepared list from the A. O. 
U. Committee, as worthy of consideration for a uniform 
bird law. 

Hon. Chase S. Osborn of Sault Ste. Marie will sail for 
Eui^ope soon. 

Miss Mabel Bates of Traverse City is society editor of 
the "Herald," published at that place, and she does not 
wear (un)"made" birds upon her hats either. 

Mr. Edmund Van Winkle of Vans Harbor has moved 
to Warsaw, Indiana. 

Dr. Harry C. Watkins of Ann Arbor has resigned 
from his position at the U. of M., and has opened an of- 
fice in Saginaw, E. S. We understand that Dr. Watkins 
is married. Will his wife wear birds upon her hat ? 

The editor-in-chief (who, by the way, has returned from 
the Upper Peninsula and is in charge of our Bulletin 
again) found Judge Joseph H. Steere in the front win- 
dow of the Park Hotel at Sault Ste. Marie reading "The 
Osprey," and one of the first things he did was to show 
the editor through the dining-room and kitchen, to a 
store-room, where an magnificent Snowy Owl was wink- 
ing and blinking in the light. Does the judge love 
birds? 

Mr. Mark B. Mills writes from Adrian, Michigan, that 
he saw a Belted Kingfisher on January 14th. 

Chief Pokagon is now engaged in the preparation of an 
exhaustive article for the Forum upon "Indian Super- 
stition." 

At the Michigan Agricultural College any of our mem- 
bers who may visit that busy and energetic institution of 
practical common sense (and any who visit Lansing must 
not fail to do so) will find us represented by the follow- 
ing members : Walter B. Barrows, Rufus H. Pettit, 
Thos. L. Hankinson, Wm. A. Ilayden, C. W. Loomis, 
D. A. Seeley, Burton O. Longyear and Leon J. Cole. 

Mr. E. E. Brewster of Iron Mountain, the well-know^^ 
ornithologist of the Upper Peninsula, is chemist of th^ 
Pewabic mines at that place. Mr. Brewster is a graduate 
of Yale. 

Messrs. C. S. Osborn and L. D. Watkins have been 
commissioned by Governor Pingree as members of the 
Cuban Relief Committee of Michigan. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Oknithological Club. 



9 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

/nMcbi^an ©rnttbological Club. 

Published Quarterly. 

L. WHITNEY WATKINS, Manchester, Mich., 
Editor-in-Chief. 
Associates : 
T. L. Hankinson, Agricultural College, Mich. 
Percy Selous, Greenville, Mich. 

Miss Frances Margaret Fox, Bay City, Mich. 



Managing Editors, 



W. EARI,E MULLIKEN, ) 
LEON J. COLE, ) 

191 First Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 



Subscription : In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly 
in advance. Single copies, fifteen cents. 

Foreign Subscription: Seventy-five cents a year to all 
countries in the Universal Postal Union. 

Free to Honorary Members, and to Active and Associate 
Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Advertising rates sent on application to Managing Editors. 



Entered at Grand Rapids, Michigan, as second class matter. 



Exchanges and books for review should be sent to the 
Librarian, 25 Kellogg St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Articles for publication should be sent to one of the editors. 

All advertisements, snbcriptions, or business communica- 
tions should be sent to the Managing Editors. 

Author's separates can be furnished at a very reasonable rate 
if application is made when the article is sent. 



The Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Clnb 
enters npou the mission of its second volume with 
doubled energy and faith from the experiences of the 
past year. We have in the meantime seen one small, 
enthusiastic band of w^orkers, typical of the advance- 
ment of all Michigan organizations, grow^ into an 
association more than one hundred strong and with 
its usefulness but begun. We congratulate our 
Club, our friends, and all who share with us the love 
of birds, upon the apparent possibilities of develop- 
ment among the work and workers in that most de- 
lightful branch of Natural History — Ornithology. 



Our board of associate editors is somewhat changed 
since the publication of Vol. I. We trust that those 
who now take the places of the former board, in the 
important duties before them, may prove as efficient 
and as willing in their work as have their pre- 
decessors. 



Since the publication of the report for Michigan 
by Mr. Watkins, your editor-in-chief, upon the 
status of work along the line of bird protection in 
this State, (Report of the A. O. U. Committee on 
Bird Protection.— The Auk, Vol. XV, No. 1, Jan., 



1898,) we have received two letters, both from 
ladies, regarding this work. 

Miss Edna Loomis, Jackson, Mich , speaks of the 
wanton shooting of gulls and other water fowl "for 
fun" by resorters and summer travelers in the 
vicinity of Petoskey, en route, from the boats plying 
to and from the resort cities of this region. Her let- 
ter has been referred to the State Game and Fish 
Warden of Michigan, and Mr. Osborn, in his usual 
prompt and emphatic manner, announces that it 
must cease. Miss Loomis sets a practical example 
to all. Let us not only think and write upon this 
subject, but acL 

Miss J. E. Hammand, Schaller, Iowa, Secretary 
of the Schaller x\udubon Society, has written of the 
earnest work of that thrifty local organization for the 
protection of birds She enclosed a copy of the 
leaflet they have issued and asked for suggestions 
along that line. The editer at once ordered a suffi- 
cient number of copies of this little leaflet to be sent 
out to you with the issue of A"ol. II, No. 1, which 
we hope you have now before you. They show un- 
selfish work and devotion to principle in the Schaller 
Society and are so thought-inspiring that w^e ask you 
to ponder well upon the simple words therein. 
Now, dear friends, while the spirit moves, read and 
re-read the beautiful plea of the Bluebird's heart, 
from the pen of Miss Fox, of your editorial board, in 
this issue. Then again turn back, if you have it, to 
Vol. I, No. 2, and read the article from our venerable 
and honored friend, and Chief of the Pottawattamie 
Indians, Simon Pokagon. It is entitled, ''To the 

Michigan Ornithological Club." 

Ponder upon what yon can do for the birds. 

Please send notes and news, and questions and 
answers — anything of interest to you — to your paper, 
this bulletin. Some may not find their way into 
print at first, perhaps not at all, but all will be 
thankfully received, and will receive the careful 
consideration and attention of your editors. We 
wish to make our pages of the very most value in 
the limited space at our disposal 

Is it necessary for us to ask you to kiudly bear in 
mind the necessity of promptly sending in your dues 
to the Club ? We believe this year that none will 
Avithhold, from the good work of the organization, 
the little money required to run this Bulletin. But 
it does take money and we must have it, in order to 
make the most of its value to you in return. Re- 
member, not a member of the Club receives one cent 
of pay for services rendered, and it is simply 
thoughtlessness that makes a few of our members 
delinquent. As stated in our last issue, this number 
will go to none who are in arrears for Club dues ibr 
1897. Mrs. F. A. Kelsey, 140 Woodward Ave., 
Detroit, Mich., is Treasurer. 



10 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



Chase S. Osborn. 

The subject of this sketch, whose half-tone like- 
ness is present in this issae of the Bulletin, together 
with his graceful tribute to the Eaven, was born in 
a log house in Huntington County, Indiana, January 
22, 1860. His early education was derived in the 
public schools of La Fayette, Indiana, and completed 
at Purdue University. 

Mr. Osboru is a newspaper man. He served his 
apprenticeship with the great metropolitan dailies of 
Chicago and Milwaukee, edited a paper for some 
years at Florence, Wisconsin, and is at present owner 
of the Saidt Ste. Marie News. He is prominent 
among the press associations and is one of the best 
known politicians in Michigan. Mr. Osborn is a 
brilliant orator, a bright and forceful Avriter, and a 
kind and generous friend. He has traveled exten- 
sively and has devoted much time in the gratifica- 
tion of his natural love for the study of science and 
especially of Natural History. He is an expert 
woodsman, a clever shot, and bears the significant 
name — Chase Salmon. 

But it is as State Game and Fish Warden that Mr. 
Osborn has attracted the particular attention of those 
who feel an interest in the protection of our native 
birds, fish and mammals. It has been said of him : 
"Chase Osborn always does his level best." He has 
forced the observance of game and fish laws in 
Michigan, where as yet too little sentiment has been 
manifested in their favor. 

Mr. Osborn is a member of the Lake Superior 

]\Iiniug Institute, the American Academy of Political 

and Social Science, the American Ornithologists' 

Union, the Michigan Academy of Science, and of the 

Michigan Ornithological Club. 

L. W. W. 



n. O. C. and flichigan flen in the A. O. U. 

Members of the American Ornithologists' Union, 

January, 1898. 

Active. Honorary. Corresponding. Associate. Total. 
Entire A. O. U., 46 18 68 547 676 

In Michigan, 1 19 20 

luM. O. C, 3 15 18 

We have, as will be seen, 17 members of the 
American Ornithologists' Union in our ranks alone, 
and we should be able, with the members in the 
other States interested, to induce the A. O U. Con- 
gress of 1898 or 1899 to come to the middle AVest — 
say to Chicago — where all of our members could at- 
tend. 

Our members in that organization are: Dr. Elliott 
Coues, Prof Walter B. Barrows, Mr. Ruthven 
Deane and Prof A. J. Cook, and Messrs. Cole, Eddy, 
Hankinson, Osborn, Purdy, Steere, Trombley, Van 
Winkle, Watkins, Brewster, Dickinson, Jones, 
Yorke and San ford. 



Gleanings from Late Periodicals. 

Report of the Birds Recorded during a Visit 
TO THE Islands of Santa Barbara, San Nicholas 
AND San Clemente in the Spring of 1897. . By 
Joseph Grinnell. 

Publication No. 1 , Pasadena (California) Academy of 
Science. 

These islands are respectively 35, 60 and 50 miles dis- 
tant from the mainland of Southern California. 

Upon Santa Barbara no fresh water was found, the 
sides precipitous bluffs to the water, top mostly a smooth 
mesa with much grass and weeds and some low bushes 
and cacti. Many caverns and steep ravines on borders. 
Fourteen species of land birds were observed, among 
them the following species, which are with us in 
Michigan : Mourning Dove, Bald Eagle, Myrtle Warbler 
and Magnolia Warbler. 

San Nicolas is the most barren of the three islands, is 
three by seven miles in size, and is very sandy. Some 
bushes and cacti — little grass. Drops abruptly from 
the top plateau, leaving a wide interval to the beach. A 
cistern of rain water found. Nine species of land birds 
found, among them the Michigan species : Mourning 
Dove, Bald Eagle, American Osprey and American 
Raven. 

San Clemente consists of a summit ridge lowering in 
a series of benches or mesas to a broad beach in some 
places, and in others to the edge of a very steep bluff. 
Water in holes and gorges, to which many paths lead, 
worn by the numerous Hocks of goats and sheep. Mr. 
Grinnell speaks of a windmill here, but in no other in- 
stance refers to existing marks of civilization. Cactus, 
wild cherry and other lower bushes are mentioned, but 
not much vegetation, on the whole, was found. Thirty- 
one species of land birds were noted here, among them 
species well known to us, as follows : Mourning Dove, 
Bald Eagle, American Osprey, Belted Kingfisher, 
American Raven and Cedar Waxwing. 

On the three Islands, twenty- four species of birds were 
recorded, among them : Bonaparte's Gull, Great Blue 
Heron and Spotted Sandpiper — all species known to us. 

Of our species in these three Islands, considered col- 
lectively, the American Raven, Bald Eagle and Mourn- 
ing Dove are common, and breed ; the Great Blue 
Heron and Belted Kingfisher were present in some num- 
bers, but not known for a certainty to breed ; the Cedar 
Waxwing, Myrtle Warbler, Magnolia Warbler and 
Bonaparte's Gull were noted, but thought to be only oc- 
casional migrants. 

No Ducks nor Divers were noted, nor any Wood- 
peckers or Grouse in kind. 

This is a very interesting publication— one meriting 
much thought in its consideration, and we congratulate 
the Academy of Science of Pasadena and Mr. Grinnell 
for producing so creditable a list and report. — L. W. W. 

The Feather, Vol. HI, No. 4, January, 1898. 

Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U. S. A., of the Smithonian In- 
stitution, writes a convincing article on bird protection 
under the head, "Birds in Millinery." Following his 
very able arguments he calls attention to a remedy which 
he considers applicable and commensurate to the crime. 
He would "heavily fine all the milliners in the country 
for keeping either birds or plumes to be sold in their es- 
tablishments to parties intending to wear them on their 
hats oi other parts of their clothing ; include in this any 
other concern that may embark in a similar business ; 
and then, to make it doubly sure, fine every woman not 
less than ten dollars for every offense, when apprehended 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



11 



in public with birds or plumes of birds forming any addi- 
tion to her attire, all the way from hats to fans. Were 
such a bill drawn up, and signed by a large number of 
people of all departments of science, and then properly 
represented and introduced. Congress would undoubtedly 
pass it, and that as a sound measure for the common 
good of all," If we must do so we will. — L. W. W. 

The Auk, Vol. XV., No. 1, January, 1898. 

Mr. Geo. H. Mackay, Nantucket, Mass., in the Auk 
for January, announces the probable death of "Gull 
Dick," the American Herring Gull, whose individual 
movements have been noted for twenty- four consecutive 
years. "Dick" has not been seen since October, 1896. 
He has furnished exceptional opportunity for study and 
has often been the subject of notes. 

Mr. H. D. Kirkover, Fredonia, N. Y., observed the 
Greater Yellow Legs catching minnows by running with 
their bills beneath the surface of the water, which was 
about three inches deep. He killed and examined the 
stomachs of two of them and found them to contain min- 
nows one and a half inches long. 

Mr. J. C. Merrill, Washington, D. C., saw a Spotted 
Sandpiper carry her young for some distance, apparently 
clasped by its thighs. This after being much worried by 
continued visits to the place by Mr. Merrill. 

Mr. Frank M. Woodruff of the Chicago Academy of 
Science records the taking of Glaucus Gull, Larus 
glaucus, on beach of Lake Michigan, near Miller's, 
Indiana, on August 8, 1897. He also reports flocks of 
the Knot, Tringa canutus. None of these latter were 
in the adult plumage of brick -red breasts, which gives 
them the name Robin Sandpiper amomg the hunters. 

The report of the A. O. U. Committee on Bird Pro- 
tection is very elaborate and is intensely interesting and 
gratifying. Nearly every State is heard from, and the 
work in behalf of our birds is most encouraging. The 
specialists, the amateurs, the sportsmen, the business 
men and the noblest women in our land are enlisting as 
volunteers in the cause of justice, love, and mercy, and 
in a work of economical importance also, on every hand. 
We hear the farmers and gardners complaining in help- 
less bewilderment at the ever increasing hosts of insect 
pests, and they talk of spray pumps and insecticides and 
perhaps even neglect to use these All this time they 
have forgotten to protect nature's insecticides, the birds, 
and they are being punished for it too. — L. W. W. 



The Annual Meeting. 

Lansing, Mich., Dec. 17. The meetings were 
held in the Senate Chamber in the Capitol Build- 
ing. In the absence of the President Mr. L. 
Whitney W atkins was appointed cliairman. After 
the reading of minutes and the rendering of the 
reports of the Treasurer and Librarian for the 
past year, the remainder of the afternoon was 
spent in discussing informally the interests and 
prospects of the Club, and several committees were 
appointed to meet and report later with regard to 
the condition of the Club, and to propose any 
changes that might suggest themselves. At half- 
past five the meeting was adjourned to meet again 
at seven-thirty o'clock. 

Evening Session. The evening was devoted en- 
tirely *to the reading and discussion of papers. 
The first was on "The Rapid Disappearance of our 
Birds of Prey," by Mr. Percy Selous of Greenville, 



and was an able defense of the Hawks and Owls of 
Micliigan, wliich was read by Mr. Read of Grand 
Rapids, in the absence of the author. 

Mrs. Kelsey next read a short paper written by 
Miss Mable Bates of Traverse City, in which was 
put forth the "Work of the Junior Endeavor in 
Michigan Toward the Protection of Birds." 

Prof. Barrows followed this witli an instructive 
paper on "The importance of the Local Collection." 

"The Manner of Nesting of some North Dakota 
Water Birds" was the title of a most interesting 
article by Mr. Edwin S. Bryant, who is a resident 
of Michigan, but who has been doing much collect- 
ing in the west. Among other things, Mr. Bryant 
mentioned finding nests of the White-winged 
Scoter; this he believes to be the first record of the 
nidification of this bird within the United States. 
He exhibited nests and eggs of tlie American 
Golden-eye, Blue-winged Teal, Pintail, White- 
winged Scoter and Shoveler to illustrate his paper. 

The fifth paper was by Mr. T. L. Hankinson, and 
was entitled "Our Grebes." Mr. Hankinson men- 
tioned the taking of a specimen of Holboell's Grebe 
( Colymbiis holba;llli) by himself at Pine Lake, Ingham 
County, October 30, 1897. 

The programme was concluded by a paper on 
"The Butcher Bird," written by Dr. Gibbs and read 
by Mr. W. A. Hayden of Jackson. 

Dec. 18. In the morning a short business meet- 
ing was held in parlors of the Hotel Downy to 
complete the unfinished business of Friday after- 
noon. Officers and committees for the following 
year were elected, a list of which will be found in 
the proper place. The editorial staff of the 
BuLT.ETiisr were elected as follows: Editor-in- 
chief, L. Whitney Watkins; associates, T. L. 
Hankinson, Percy Selous and Miss Frances Mar- 
garet Fox; managing editors, W. E. Mulliken 
and L. J. Cole. 

It was decided that the next annual meeting 
shall be lield in Detroit. 

It was moved that a committee of three be 
appointed to revise the constituti(»n and to report 
at the January meeting. L. J. Cole, T. L. Hankin- 
son and D. A. SeeJey were appointed on this com- 
mittee. Messrs. Watkins and Hankinson were 
appointed to draw up resolutions upon the pro- 
tection of Michigan birds, these resolutions to be 
spread upon the minutes of the Club and to be 
printed in the Bulletin. 

Mr. Watkins, Mrs. Kelsey and Miss Mabel Bates 
were appointed a committee to confer with Mr. 
Stone of the American Ornithologists' Union to 
see what steps can be taken towards joining with 
them in the interests of bird protection. 

The remainder of the forenoon was spent at the 
Agricultural College in looking over the College 
Museum. 

In the afternoon a short session was held at the 
College, and the following papers were read: "The 
Passenger Pigeon in the Early Days of Micliigan," 
by Percy Selous; "Characteristic Motions of Birds," 
by Claude H. Barlow; and "A Generation of 
Ornithologists," by Dr. Morris Gibbs. 

During the latter part of the afternoon the 
members returned to Lansing, and npon the kind 
invitation of Mayor Davis, spent the remainder of 
the day in looking at his artistic collection of 
mounted mammals and birds, and Audubon's Birds 
of America, of wliich Mr. Davis has two complete sets. 

LEON J. COLE, Secretary. 



12 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



Officers and Committees. 

President, AV. A. Davidson. 

Vice-President, Joseph H. Steere. 
Secretary, Leon J. Cole. 

Treasurer, Estell O. Kelsey. 

Programme Committee. 

James B. Pnrdy, Chairman, Lotan C. Eead. 

Wm. A. Hayden. 

Collection Committee. 

Horace F. Jones, Chairman, Claude H. Barlow, 

Jerome Trombley. 

Migration Committee. 

W. E. Mulliken, Chairman, Norman A. Eddy, 

W. A. Oldfield, Mark B. Mills, Edwin S. Bryant. 



List of Members of the Michigan Ornith- 
ological Club, Feb. 15, 1898. 

HONORARY. 

(Residence in Michigan unless otherwise given.) 

Prof. Walter B. Barrows, Agricultural College. 

Maj. A. H. Boies, Hudson. 

Prof. Albert J. Cook, Pomona College, Claremont, Cal. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Adolphe B. Covert, Ann Arbor. 

Dr. Morris Gibbs, Kalamazoo. 

Dr. Manly Miles, Lansing. 

Chief Simon Fokagon, Hartford. 

Dr. James B. Steere. Ann Arbor. 

ACTIVE. 

Ayres, C. Morton, Sault vSte. Marie. 
—Baker, Henry B., Jr., 726 Ottawa St., Lansing. 

Bancher, Edward, Jackson. 

Barlow, Claude H., Greenville. 

Bates, Mrs. M. E. C, Traverse City. 

Bates, Miss Mabel, Traverse City. 

l^ates, Miss Clara, Traverse City. 

Bessmer, Gottlieb, Hastings. 

Bryant, Edwin S., 304 Logan St., Lansing, 

Cass, Chas. L., Hillsdale. 
*KI!ole, Leon J., Agricultuial College. ** 

--Davidson, W. A., 383 Morrell St , Detroit. 

Drake, L. M., Ware, Mass. 

Durfee, A. B., 759 Wealthy Ave., Grand Rapids. 

Eddy, N. A , 615 N. Grant St., Bay City. 

Fox, Miss Frances Margaret, Bay City. 

Groh, Miss Amber, Grosse He. 
"^ankinson, Thomas L., Agricultural College. 

Harris, John W., 77 E. Huron St., Ann Arbor. 

Hayden, William A., 110 Pennsylvania Ave., Lansing. 

Hazelwood, I., Port Huron. 

Jones, E. A., Greenville. 

Jones, H. F. , 375 j^ Lyon St., Grand Rapids. 

Karshner, Clyde, Big Rapids. 

Kelsey, Mrs. F. A., 140 Woodward Ave., Detroit. 

Laraway, B. R. , 25 Kellogg St., Grand Rapids. 

Mills, Mark B., Register of Deeds office, Adrian. 

Morrill, W. P., 11 Maynard St., Ann Arbor. 

Mulliken, W. Earle, 191 First Ave., Grand Rapids. 

Nichols, Jason E., Lansing. 

Oakley, Rev. E. C, Romeo. 



Oldfield, W. A., Port Sanilac. 

Osborn, Chase S., Sault Ste. Marie. 

Pieters, Mrs. A. J., 2219 15th St., Washington, D. C. 

Purdy, James B., Plymouth. 

Rarden, Charles Brerton, Greenville. 

Read, Lotan C, Michigan Soldiers' Home. 

Seeley, D. A., Agricultural College. 

Selous, Percy, Greenville. 

Steere, Judge Jos. H., Sault Ste. Marie. 

Stockman, A. H., (Arcadia. 
^VanWinkle, Edmund, Warsaw, Ind. 
"Walker, Bryant, 18 Moffat Bldg., Detroit. 

Warren, Harry S., 1356 John R. St., Detroit. 

Watkins, Lucius D., Manchester. 

Watkins, L. Whitney, Manchester. 

White, T. Gilbert, 3 Waverly Place, Grand Rapids. 

Whiting, Clarence K., 224 School St., Grand Rapids. 

Whittemore, Prof. C. A., 656 Madison Ave., Grand 
Rapids. 

Wolcott, Dr. Robt. H., Univ. of Neb., Lincoln, Neb. 

Wood, Norman A., Univ. of Mich. Museum, Ann Arbor. 

ASSOCIATE. 

Abbot, Gerard, Englewood, 111. 

Alexander, Robert C, Plymouth. 

Bailey, H. G., 83 Oakes St., Hillsdale. 

Blodgett, Thos. H., Galesburg, 111. 

Bortree, M. R , 86 Lasalle St , (R. 713), Chicago, 111. 

Brackett, Lewis, Big Rapids. 

Brewster, E. E , Iron Mountain. 

Clarkson, Mrs. S. W., 433 S. 5th Ave., Ann Arbor. 

Collins, C. C, Lansing. 

Deane, Ruthven, 24 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Dickenson, Jos. E., Rockford, 111. 

Dixon, Geo. W., Watertown, S. D. 

Durfee, E. W. , Washington, Pima Co. , Ariz. 

Freidrich, Geo. J., Brooklyn. 

French, Stuart K , Brooklyn. 

Gow, Alexander, Windsor, Ont. 

Hammond, Miss J. F. , Schaller, Iowa. 

Hay, Chas. V., 1807 Texas Ave., Houston, Tex. 

Henninger, Rev. W. F. , Waverly, Ohio. 

Higgins, Miss Clara A., 247 Jos. Campau Ave., Detroit. 

Holmes, Mrs. C. P., Norvell. 

Hunt, Lynn B,, Albion. 

Johnson, Waher A., 141 E. 25th St., New York City. 

Jones, Prof. Lynds, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Law, J. E., Madison, Wis. 

Lewis, D. J., Ganges. 

Lewis, Harry, Lansing. 

Lillie, Mrs. Frank R., 711 S. 13th St., Ann Arbor. 

Longyear, Burton O., Agricultural College. 

Loomis, Chas. W. , Agricultural College. 

Melville, W. P., Windsor, Ont. 

Oakley, D. W. J., (M. & M. Exchange, Chamber ot 

Commerce,) Detroit. 
Peterson, Eryl S., Brooklyn. 
Pettit, Rufus H., Agricultural College. 
Primrose, John H., Tecumseh. 
Rath, Henry, Box 58, Ludington. 
Sanford, Prof. F. E., La Grange, 111. 
Stuart, Friant, 3639 Vincennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Stuart, Harold, 3(539 Vincennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Stuart, W. H., 3639 Vincennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Swales, B. Hall, Care of A. R. Metcalfe, Pasadena, Cal. 
Trombley, Jerome, Petersburg. 
Van Pelt, Arthur W., Muskegon. 
Walker, Geo. H., Belvidere, 111. 

Watkins, Dr. Harry Clark, 514 Patter St., Saginaw, E.S. 
Yorke, F. Henry, M. D., Foosland, 111. 



A VALUABLE BOOK for BIRD STUDENTS 

and sure to find its way into the library of every 

WORKING NATURALIST. 

"Si(6i6li6s 01 Some comnion Birds," 

BY P. M. SILLOWAY. 

331 pages. Cloth. Illustrated. Price, $1.50. 

The so-called sketches are really full life-histories, fifty-five of the common 
birds being thus treated. Written in a clear, pleasant style, this work is of 
special interest to ornithologists of the Mississippi ValJey, and will take a perma- 
nent place in ornithological literature. 

Address, 

EDITOR PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

Pike Building. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

('•I noticed your 'Ad.' in the M. O. C. Bulletin."') 



,_ -, — * 




/ 



V 




/^oiry 



Vol. II. No. 2. 



APRIL, 1898 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 





6IUD. 



~^^^r 



Puftlisned in ttie Interests ot OrnitHoIoau In MicHiQan. 



JT 



Grand Rapids, Michigan, 









CONTENTS. 

Dr. Manly Miles, W. B. Barrows, 13 

A Few Hints on Taking and Keeping Notes, 

Dr. Robt. H. Wolcott, 14 

Van Buren County Notes, F. S. Shuver, 15 

An Ideal Spot, N. A. Eddy, 17 

Bird-plumes, Percy Selous, 17 

The Marsh Wren a Destroyer of Other Birds' 

Eggs, T. L. Hankinson, 18 ' 

General Notes, 19 

American Goshawk in Boone Co , Illinois. 



Albino Grackle. 

Some Notes on Colorado Birds. 

Notes from Ann Arbor. 

Occasional Bird Notes. 

Migration Notes from Old Orchard, Missouri. 

Editorials. 21 

Recent Literature, 22 

Michigan Academy of Science, 23 

Dewitt J. Oakley, 23 

Resolutions, 24 

A Suggestion, 24 



t( 



A VALUABLE BOOK for BIRD STUDENTS 
and sure to find its way into thie library of every 

WORKING NATURALIST. 

SK6I6I16S 01 Some Gonmion Birds." 

BY p. M. SILLOWAY. 

331 pages. Cloth. Illustrated. Price, $1.50. 



The so-called sketches are really full life-histories, hfty-five of the common 
birds being thus treated. Written in a clear, pleasant style, this work is of 
special interest to ornithologists of the Mississippi Valley, and will take a perma- 
nent place in ornithological literature. 

Address, 

EDITOR PUBLISHING COMPANY, 



Pike Building. 



Cincinnati, Ohio. 



('•I noticed your 'AdJ in the M. O. C. Bulletin.'') 



Back Numbers of this Bulletin 
can be furnished at the 
following prices only : 



M I, No. 1, Jaiary, 189?, 40 cts. 
Vol. I, No. 2, April, 1897, 35 cts. 
Vol. I, No. 34, Jflly-Dec, 1897, 30 cts. 
Vol. II, 1. 1, Jaiarj, 1898 15 cts. 
A Very few files of voliie 1 at $ 1 




Clean copies of Vol. I, No. 1, January, 1897, will be 
purchased by the managers. 

MULLIKEN & GOLE, Managers, 

191 First Avenue, 

Grand Rapids, - Michigan. 



New Subscriptions to 

OSPREY 

and 

M. 0. C. BULLETIN 

together for $L25. 

Eemit either to the managers of this Bulletin 
or to the Osprey, 141 Ea-st 25th St., New York City. 

Michigan Agricultural College 

Offers special advantages to young men and young women 
desirous of obtaining a tborough training in Natural Sciences. 
' It has one of the most corajjlete libraries along scientific lines 
in the country. Besides very large and complete collections 
of specimens in various departments. It has ten well 
equipped laboratories, each of which is under the direction 
of a specialist. The whole equipment is valued at over half 
a million dollars. 

Three Courses of study are offered, each four years in 
in length: Agricultural, Mechanical, Women's. 

Six six-week courses are offered during the winter, in 
creamenj and home dairying, stock-feeding, fndt-mltvre, 
floricidture, winter 'vegetable gardening and four weeks in 
cheesemaking. 

Expeses very low— no tuition to residents of the state. 
Board at actual cost, etc. 
Write for catalogue. 

J. L. SNYDER, President, 

Agricultural College (P. O.), Mich. 




I 



Dr. rianly ililes. 



NOV 13 m2 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



/nbicbigan ©rnitbological Club. 



Yol. II, No. 2. 



Grand Rapids, Mich., April, 1898. 



50 cts. per year. 



DR. MANLY MILES. 

Michi^aD has recently lost one of the best 
naturalists which the state ever produced, 
for Manly Miles, though born in Cortland 
County, New York, came to live in Michi- 
gan before he was twelve years old, and 
may be fairly considered as one of the true 
products of this state, where more tlian fifty 
3^ears of his lons^ and active life were spent. 

That he did not become famous as a 
naturalist, or rather that his fame did not 
become world-wide, is largely due to the 
chance, or the fact, that just in the prime 
of his life, and when a tempting career as a 
zoologist was opening before him, pressure 
of circumstances turned him somewhat 
aside from his favorite science, and he was 
led to enter the field of scientific agricul- 
ture. Well fitted by nature and study for 
good work in almost any line of science, he 
has left his mark indelibly on the develop- 
ment of experimental agriculture, but we 
can never cease to regret that many of 
those toilsome years were not spent in un- 
ravelling some of the important biological 
problems which the state afforded, which 
his skill and perserverance would surely 
have solved. The work wdiich he did in 
1859, 1860 and 1861, while connected with 
the state geological survey, gives proof of 
his rare qualities as a naturalist. He was 
a ''born collector," the phrase is, and his 
keen eyes, tireless industry, and mathemat- 
ical precision, led to the accumulation of 
thousands of valuable specimens and more 
valuable observations. His pet science or 
'4iobby'' was the study of the mollusca, 
^'conchology," as it is often called, yet he 
made valuable collections of birds, mam- 
mals, reptiles, and fishes, and seems to 
have possessed, in a high degree, that strong 
characteristic of a true naturalist, a full 



appreciation of the value of good specimens. 
Many of his speeimens are now preserved 
at the Agricultural College, and among his 
shells are manv which are of more than 
ordinary value from having several as types 
of new species, or as specimens from type 
localities, or as part or all of the material 
which has helped to clear up mistakes and 
misconceptions about species and their dis- 
tribution. 

In all his work Dr. Miles was neat, 
orderly, precise, and careful, and rarely, 
indeed, does it happen that any specimen 
collected by him is unaccompanied by full 
and accurate data. 

Recently, in overhauling some jars of 
miscellaneous alchoholic material that had 
been stored away in the dark and dust for 
years, a bottle was found containing several 
little packets, carefully wrapped in mosquito 
netting and then cloth, each tied with 
thread and all immersed in alcohol. On 
unrolling the packets a parchment label was 
found in each, bearing a word or two in 
Dr. Miles' clear characteristic handwriting, 
showing the locality and data, and in some 
cases a collection number, by means of 
which we were able to obtain the full data 
for these specimens, collected thirty-five 
years hefore. His memory was clear and 
strong to the very last year of his life, but 
he was wise enough to know that the very 
best memory is not as reliable as a written 
record, and he doubless believed it poor 
policy to encumber a good mind with a load 
of mere details, which could easily and 
quickly be committed to paper, and always 
be at his service if he should need them. 

But while he collected with ardor and 
preserved his specimens with scrupulous 
care, the higher qualities of the scientist 
were apparent in the keen intelligence with 
which he studied and compared them, and, 
through correspondence and exchange, 



G. 



"L 



14 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



t 



made them yield all of wliich thej were 
capable. 

Much of his early life was passed on a 
farm in Genessee County, near Flint, and 
he collected extensively _in that region. 
His later life was spent, largely, in and 
about Lansing, and during the last few 
years he resumed the study of the moUusca 
and spent many pleasant hours in rearrang- 
ing his collection of shells in the Museum 
of the Agricultural College. It was here 
that the writer first came to know him, and 
to recognize those qualities which belong 
only to the true lover of nature and the 
deep student of her mysteries. The range 
of Dr. Miles' knowledge was unusually 
large. Educated as a physician he was well 
versed in questions of anatomy, both struc- 
tural and comparative, and was ever on 
the alert to detect similarities of structure, 
which might indicate true affinities. But 
he was also a chemist and a physicist, well 
read in geology and mineralogy, enthusi- 
astic in biology, both animal and vegetable, 
and a practical agriculturist in the scientific 
application of all this knowledge. As a 
teacher he is said to have been unusually 
successful, though, as in so many cases, the 
recognition of this lagged far behind the 
fact. B.e was not pre-eminet as an ornith- 
oligist, but all which he did in this line has 
stood the test of time, and while many ad- 
ditions have been made to his bird list of 
203 species, printed in 1861, only two or 
three subtractions have been necessary, and 
these were species which appear to have 
been included on the authority of others. 
Like many of the older ornithologists, he 
followed Audubon in considering the im- 
mature Bald Eagle to be a distinct species, 
Washington's Eagle. 

Dr. Miles died at Lansing, Feb. 15, 
1898, in his 72d year, leaving a record of 
which any scientific man might well be 
proud, together with many friends and ad- 
mirers of his quiet, studious, unassuming 
life, who will ever mourn his loss. 

Walter B. Barrows. 
Agricultural College, Mich., 
May 3, 1898. 



fV Few Hints on Takino and KeeDing Notes. 

DR. ROBT. H. WOLCOTT. 

Note Books. 

The methods of note-taking in natural 
history are as varied as the number of 
students is numerous, and to each the 
method which he uses, into which he has 
grown, and to which he has adapted himself, 
seems best. Yet perhaps a statement of 
what I believe myself the best system may 
not be without interest to the Club, and 
from it the members may glean some assist- 
ance in devising a system of their own. 

I keep three books, or have recently done 
so, a Field-book, Journal and Ledger, as 
the third may be called. Adopting an 
advisory style of expression and summariz- 
ing what I have to say, let me take the 
three in order. 

Field "book. 

Have a well-bound, not too bulky, vol- 
ume of such size as to slip easily into one's 
pocket. Such a book as a Surveyor's Field- 
book is just the thing. Tie a pencil to it 
with a string of proper length to permit of 
writing easily. Always, carry it with you 
in the field. Put down everything you note 
about the object of your study. You can- 
not take too 'many notes. Insert sketches 
on the spot, if you have skill and time. 
The former is acquired by all with practice. 
Diagrams as to location of nests may be 
made. In fact the Field-book ought to be 
a receptacle — a crop — into which all crude 
information is turned. 

Journal. 

i3ut it is extremelv desirable that this 
material be put in form for permanent pre- 
servation, and this may be done by writing 
out all the small notes from the field book, 
together with what may be added from ob- 
servations during the preservation of the 
specimens. Use here as good a literary 
style as your time and attainments permit, 
and you will find the practice in writing, 
thus gained, to be of great value. 

These two books are essential — not so is 
the 

"Ledger," 

and yet it is of great value. Pages may be 



! 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



15 



ruled for migration notes, others for notes 
on contents of stomach, etc. In it may be 
incorporated all your knowledge of a bird 
and also all the references and notes gained 
by reading. Take a winter evening, for 
instance, run over your journal, read any 
authorities you may have at hand, think of 
what you read, get your knowledge of a 
bird into shape in your mind, then write it 
down. You will get more in permanent 
knowledge from this book than any other 
means of study you may adopt. 

You must keep a field-book. If you ever 
intend to continue an ornithologist, you 
must keep a journal. A ledger requires 
work and time, but it pays. 

Note-books are made with loose sheets, 
perforated to allow of temporary or perma- 
nent binding. The adoption of such a 
form for a ledger, will allow of insertion of 
material at any time, and is very convenient. 
But my time is short and I am compelled 
to close this very incomplete and sketchy 
"paper." I submit it only in the hope that 
in it some of the members may find a 
hint of help to them. 

Sept. 3, 1895. 



Van Buren Gountu Notes. 



F. S. SHUVER. 



The Raven. 



The Raven appears to liave been quite 
common in Van Buren County, as in other 
parts of southern Michigan, about thirty- 
five years ago. It then retired to the north 
as the Crow encroached upon it^i territory, 
and was but rarely seen southward. The 
Crows, on the other hand, have steadily 
increased each year, until they are finally 
becoming a serious nuisance. 

I have been told by older men, long 
resident in the county, that the Raven once 
bred in some localities almost as commonly 
as the Crow does now. The Raven's de- 
parture from here is given as from thirty to 
forty years ago, varying, perhaps, as to the 
locality, and also as to the observer's mem- 
ory. The only Ravens coming under my 
notice were seen in 1888 and 1892, in 
January of each year. In each instance 
only a single bird was seen, a solitary 
wanderer winging its way southward. The 



one seen in January, 1888, passed over on 
an extremely cold day, after a week of 
almost steady storm from the north. The 
bird flew past at an elevation of about one 
hundred and fifty feet. It did not, how- 
ever, alight while in sight but continued 
its flight southward, only giving two or 
three hoarse calls. The one seen in Jan., 
1892, passed south on a cold, stormy day 
in the most severe storm of the winter, and 
flew very high, uttering at least a dozen 
calls before passing out of hearing, thus 
giving a sure means of identification to 
anyone acquainted with these birds. I do 
not know of any other Ravens being seen 
about here for many years. 

The Cardinal. 

The only record I know of for this 
vicinity for the Cardinal, or Cardinal Gros- 
beak, is for the one seen by me near 
Bangor, Aug. 16, 1895. I was driving 
west from the village at sunrise and 
noticed the bird, a fine male, fly from the 
woods, cross the road and alight on the 
roadside fence. Having at diff'erent times 
seen some very fine mounted specimens, I 
at once recognized the bird. He did not 
seem afraid and sat upon the fence within 
forty feet of me, and would have been an 
easy mark for a collector. I do not think 
that the Cardinal breeds in this particular 
locality, as I cannot learn of anyone having 
seen them here during the season of 1895, 
or in subsequent seasons. I have also been 
through these woods myself, in the nesting 
season, but without finding the Cardinal 
present. The woods referred to, lying on 
Maple Creek and Black River, adjoining 
the village corporation, are used for picnics 
and on public occasions, and are much fre- 
quented by persons who would recognize 
the Cardinal if found, so I have little 
doubt the single specimen seen by me had 
wandered from its usual haunts. 

The Wild Turkey. 

The days of the Wild Turkey in Michi- 
gan seem, indeed, to be numbered. This 
bird was quite common in Van Buren Co. 
until 1880, but the gradual clearing of the 
farms, removing of large tracts of timber 
by the sawmills and charcoal kilns of the 



16 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



blast furnace, cleared the county at a rapid 
rate. The Turkeys were thus driven into 
the swamps for hiding, and lived and bred 
there in rapidly diminishing numbers. A 
few have continued to breed in Arlington 
Township in a swamp facetiously called, 
"The Garden of Eden," probably from its 
wildness a few years past ; but as this 
swamp has been drained, cleared, cut up 
into small farms and brought into good 
cultivation, the survivors have been driven 
into a constantly diminishing area extend- 
ing over three or four sections. As their 
present abode is in the slashings or second 
growth from which the original timber was 
removed years ago, and consists of saplings, 
briars and weeds, the Turkeys have man- 
aged to prolong existence. 

During the winter of 1893-4, fourteen or 
fifteen Turkeys were shot, being more than 
were killed for several winters before. 
Some were shot in tlie bush, others in the 
timber on the hills, to which they re- 
sorted to feed upon the beechnuts. Several 
more were killed during the winter of 
1895-6, mostly in the timber, being shot at 
dawn while roosting in the trees. A few 
were seen during the winter of 1896-7, and 
a gobbler, shot in January, 1897, is the 
last capture I have heard of. Were it not 
for the Turkey's extreme wariness, it 
would even now be extinct here ; as it is, 
the clearing of the small patches of brush 
will drive out the few surviving birds, and 
the Turkey, like the Pigeon, will be a 
thing of the past. I was told a few years 
ago that a few Turkeys still lived in a 
swamp near Paw Paw, but I am unable to 
say at present wdiether there are any left. 
Our last Game Law may protect the Turkey, 
or it may prevent our hearing of the death 
of the last surviving bird. 

Pileated Woodpecker. 

The Pileated Woodpecker, though once 
common in Van Buren Co., has become 
very rare. One was taken near the north 
county line five years ago and preserved in 
Bangor, but until last summer, no 
others were heard of. On May 22, 1897, 
the writer came suddenly upon a Pileated 
Woodpecker hammering the trunk of a tree 
four feet from the ground. The bird was 



very shy, and after uttering a few hoarse 
calls, flew to another strip of woods without 
giving a chance for a shot. The bird was 
in very brilliant plumage and fully as large 
as any mounted specimen I have ever seen. 
On Sept. 18, 1897, I again met with one 
of these Woodpeckers, and after half an 
hour's watching and waiting, I finally shot 
it. This bird was a young one, not yet 
full grown, nor were its feathers fully de- 
veloped. It was very shy and kept in 
almost constant flight from tree to tree, 
pausing now and then to hammer some 
decayed stub, and utter its hoarse cries. 
Sometimes it would drum upon a dry, 
sound, maple limb, sounding like someone 
hammering a barrel, and I believe it could 
have been heard a mile. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

The Red breasted Nuthatch, generally a 
fairly common fall migrant, has for the last 
three seasons been abundant. In the falls 
of 1893 and 1894, only a few were seen, 
but during the falls of 1895, 1896, and 
1897, they were seen by hundreds, gener- 
ally from* Oct. 1 to Nov. lOth. My only 
winter and spring records are for a few 
seen April 1, 2, 3,^1896, and Jan. 16, 1897. 

Cedar Waxwing. 

Some peculiar actions of the Cherry bird 
were noticed by the writer last June. 
We had tied cotton battir]g around the 
trunks of a few small plum trees to thwart 
the Curculio ; but soon found two pair of 
Cherry birds busily engaged in carr3^ing it 
away to a tree in the apple orchard. Upon 
the eighth of June I found that one pair of 
the birds had a nest finished. It was 
saddled upon a horizontal limb near the 
top of a Greening tree, and contained only 
sufficient grass for a frame work, the rest 
of the nest being composed of the stolen 
batting. The pair now became quiet, and 
the female was seen sitting in or near the 
nest for several days, and I hoped she 
would finish by laying, but in about a w^eek 
thev abandoned the nest and were not seen 



again. 



Black-billed Cuckoo. 

The Black-billed Cuckoo seems in this 
locality to nest very commonly, late in the 




A Buteo's Nest. 

Photo by T. L. Hankinson. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



17 



fall, as every year I find several nests. 
On Sept. Itt, 1897, I found a Black-billed 
Cuckoo sitting on four fresh eggs. I 
stepped up and examined the nest, and the 
bird, true to its habit, at once abandoned 
the nest. On Sept. 3d, 1894, I found a 
nest ol this Cuckoo in a large spice bush, 
and as the heav}- frosts had taken the leaves 
from the buslies, I watched them from a 
distance without disturbing them. On 
Sept. 12, I found four young birds and an 
addled eg^ in the nest. The birds cared for 
the young until the 18th, when, a very cold 
autumn rain began ; they then deserted 
their brood and w^ere not seen again. 
Bangor, Mich. 



An Ideal Spot. 

N. A. EDDY. 

Hardly a season passes but what we 
succeed in adding a few new names to our 
list of birds in this vicinity. It is the con- 
stant expectation that you may find some- 
thirjg new that gives zest and pleasure to a 
short trip a-field, particularly during the 
spring migrations. We were especially 
fortunate a few years ago, as the birds were 
on their northern journey, in finding a spot 
near our bay shore that must be admitted 
is nearly an ideal ground for the collector. 
A small extent of country possessing many 
of the features of the deep forest, with the 
broad waters of the Saginaw Bay stretching 
for over thirty miles to the east on one side, 
while to the west lie low lands and swamps. 
Here grow the white and Norway pines, 
mingled with which are the oak, beech, 
birch and other varieties of our less com- 
mon trees. Can you imagine a more per- 
fect spot in which to meet our feathered 
friends as they come hurrying up from the 
South in perfect swarms in early spring? 
And you must also bear in mind that this 
is right along the bay shore, with a vast 
expanse of water on one side and a country 
destitute, to a great extent, of trees on the 
other, forming, as it were, a perfect sluice- 
way through which all the forest inhabitants 
must pass on their journey north. To the 
east, on the broad waters of the bay and 
along the sandy shores, come the Ducks, 
Geese, Gulls, Sandpipers and Plovers, 



while to the west, among the low lands 
and swamps, will be found those varieties 
common to such environments. 

It is from this particularly favorable 
locality that during the past few seasons 
we have added many new species to our 
collection, such as the Wood Pewee, Phila- 
delphia Yireo, Blackburnian Warbler, Or- 
chard Oriole, Crested Flycatcher, Ping- 
neck. Shoveller, Canvas-back and Surf 
Ducks aud White-winged Scoter; while 
such rare and uncommon varieties as the 
Magnolia, Palm and Black-throated Blue 
Warblers, Semipalmated Plover and Baird's 
Sandpiper, will be met with here if at all. 
It was here that we noted last season, for 
the first time for this locality, the American 
Osprey, although the species had been 
formerly, some years ago, observed at 
Heisterman's Island, on the east shore of 
Saginaw Ba3\ Not far from this locality, 
in the spring of 1897, Mr. Edward Arnold 
took a set of eggs of the Bald Eagle. 

This is our favorite collecting ground, 
and we trust that the season now upon us 
will find us a frequent visitor to this, "An 
Ideal Spot." 

Bay City, Mich., March 21, 1898. 



Bird-Dlumes. 

PERCY SELOUS. 

THE estimable crusade against the 
wholesale slaughter, and, in too 
many instances, torture of birds 
for millinery purposes, of which Miss Mar- 
garet Fox and others are such admirable 
exponents, recalls to my mind the windows 
of some of the shops in Pio de Janerio. 
The first feeling on seeing the wonderful 
featherwork here exhibited, can onl}^ be 
that of admiration, but when you come to 
think of the immense number of tiny 
plumes needed to produce only one of these 
screens, the other side of the case advances 
itself, and it is, or should be. something 
more than the almost prohibitive price 
which will make you less anxious to own 
one of them. Nor is this all. You have 
only to go up into the mountains, where 
the Hummingbirds and others are secured, 
and witness the barbaritv of the collectors, 
as I did, to make you, if you have any 



18 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



heart at all, look at these exhibits with dis- 
gust. Just stunned with a light charge of 
sand, the breast and back of the quiver- 
ing victim is torn off and the palpitating 
little body thrown down to expire as it 
may. Alas ! it is not only in Brazil that 
thej do these things. How I wish that 
photography had been more advanced, and 
that T could have secured some good nega- 
tives of some of the proceedings; pictures 
that would not lie, and could be enlarged 
and hung up in prominent places as set-offs 
to the hats in tlie millinerv stores. It 
seems to me that it is some such course as 
this, which will appeal visibly to the women 
of civilization, that would have a marked 
effect. 

It is not the exception, but the 
rule, to take the plume from the living 
bird. It is a well known fact, that both 
hair and feathers retain their lustre and 
elasticity better if renjoved before death. 
Witness the law in many countries, that 
the manes of horses shall be cut off before 
the creatures are slaughtered. When I 
was a boy in London, there were women 
about the streets of that great city who 
plied the unholy calling of skinning cats 
alive. This is no tale of fiction, but the 
truth. These fiends would entice the 
wretched animals to them, and then with a 
deftness made perfect by continual practice, 
rip the skin off and fling the poor cat awa}^ 
to linger in agony no one knows how long. 
And why? Because the fur would retain 
its springiness better. Happily, this is a 
tiling of the past. It is a gruesome subject, 
this pointed allusion to the needless suffer- 
ing of innocent creatures, but if the women 
of the land could only be brought to realize 
the barbarous side of the case, they would 
surely rise up in arms, frame a code of 
their own as to what should and what 
should not be used as decoration, and give 
the cut direct to any who dared to trans- 
gress the social law. 



Mr. Newell Eddy of Bay City wishes us to say that if 
any Michigan "bird cranks" ever get his way he wants 
them to call upon him. They will find a congenial 
spirit who will always be glad to have a little talk about 
our birds, and perhaps be able to show them something 
of interest in that line. 

Prof. W. B. Barrows has been re-elected secretary of 
the Michigan Academy of Science. 



The Marsh Wren a Destrouer of 
Other Birds' Eqos. 

T. L..HANKINSON. 

F\ROM an article on the Long-billed 
Marsh Wren, read before the Mich- 
igan Ornithological Club by Harold 
Stuart, T quote a paragraph relating to a 
peculiar habit of this species. Mr. Stuart 
says, "A very ugly crime is laid up against 
this bird. They are said to suck the eggs 
of other swainp birds, especially the Least 
Bittern's. I have found numerous nests of 
the Least Bittern coritaining 'sucked' eggs, 
but have never found the thief." 

I was much interested in this note, for 
I once caught one of these birds almost in 
the very act of destroying the eggs of a 
Least Bittern. 

It was on June 25, ISOtt, I was tramping 
about among the thick bulrushes that 
bordered Bawbeese Lake, in Llillsdale 
County ; Long-billed Marsh Wrens were 
abundant, and their characteristic songs 
could be heard evei-y where about their 
haunts on the margin of the, lake. I 
noticed one of these birds perched part way 
up a bulrush, a short distance ahead of me. 
It was acting much interested in something 
just below it. I went to the place and 
found a nest of a Least Bittern containing 
two eggs. The Wren perched on a rush 
close to me and scolded as if he were the 
owner of the nest. I soon left the nest and 
Wren, and began to look about the vicinity 
to see if I could flush the Bittern — the 
owner of the nest and eggs. I soon re- 
turned to the nest, and as I approached, the 
Wren again began his scolding, and on 
looking, I saw him hopping about on the 
edge of the Bittern's nest, chattering in his 
characteristic way — the more loudly as I 
drew nearer. JSTot till I had come almost 
within arms reach of him, did the little bird 
fly away. 

I was much astonished when I found 
that one of the eggs in the Bittern's nest 
had been entirely demolished by this little 
mischief. The fresh, warm yolk was run- 
ning from the several holes in the shell of 
the i^.gg, that the bill of this little bird had 
made. 

This discovery was very interesting to me, 
especially as I had never heard of this habit 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



19 



before. I have read some literature on 
this species, but liave never seen this habit 
described except in tlie above mentioned 
paper by Mr. Stuart. 

Agricultural College, Mich. 

GENERAL NOTES. 

American Goshawk (Accipiter atricapillus) 
In Bowne County, IlL 

On the Monday after Thanksgiving, 1897, a boy 
brought to me for identification a strange Hawk. 
Ridgway's Manual identified it beyond a doubt as 
Accipiter atricapillus, and dissection' proved it to be a 
male. It was in fine condition, although its stomach 
was practically empty. 

The young man informed me that he had shot the 
hawk from a large tree standing on the edge of a piece 
of woods. He said that from the quantity of droppings 
beneath the tree, it appeared as though the hawk had 
made the tree his headquarters for several days. 

This adds a new bird to the Bowne Co. list, and I 
find on reading up that this bird is of unusual occurrence 
in Illinois. Ridgway, in his Natural History Survey of 
Illinois, gives Mr. Nelson as authority for stating that 
the Goshawk is a very rare winter visitor in Northern 
Illinois. Geo. H. Walker. 

Belvidere, 111. 



Albino Crackle. 

On April 13, one of the students came around early in 
the morning and informed me that there was a "White 
Blackbird" in the trees about the campus. The bird was 
rather wild, and soon leaving its companions, flew with 
another down to the river, where I succeeded in getting 
both at one shot. The normal bird was a young (last 
year's) male Qiiiscuhis quiscula ceneiis, the other a nearly 
perfect albino female of the same species. The eyes 
were the regular color, i. e. Avith lemon iris ; back and 
wmgs nearly white; head and under parts a little dusky; 
plumage considerably worn. 

Leon J. Cole. 

Agricultural College, Mich., Apr. 29, 1898. 



Some Notes on Colorado Birds. 

Urinator imber. LooN. One of these birds was 
shot on Sweetwater Lake in July, 1897. It was mounted, 
and is now in the possession of Mr. John Root, who 
owns a ranch near the lake. The older residents tell 
me that a Loon is seen on the lake nearly every summer. 

Pelecanus erythro7'hyj2chus. American White Pel- 
ican. A flock of six visited the lake in September, 
1897. All were shot on Sweetwater creek, about two 
miles below the lake. The skins were all saved, one of 
which I now possess. These are the only Pelicans ever 
seen in this section, and were evidently a parent and 
young. 

Glaucioiietta islandica. Barrow's Golden eye. 
Several of this species were shot here during the present 
winter. They were usually in company with Mallards, 
a large flock of which were here during most of the 
winter. 

Nycticorax nycticorax ncevius. Black-CROWNED 
Night Heron. A single specimen of this species was 



shot at the lake about the last of April, 1897. The 
mounted bird is owned by Mr. Root. 

Bonasa uuibellus uinbelloides. Gray Ruffed Grou.se. 
I have seen eight of these birds during the present winter 
at an elevation of 8,500 feet, in spruce timber above the 
lake. Prof. W. W. Cooke, in the Birds of Colorado, 
gives this Grouse as rare. 

Lagopus leucuruw White-tailed Ptarmigan. Some 
five or six years ago this Ptarmigan came down to the 
vicinity of the lake during the winter. They are not 
common here, as this Flat Top country is below timber 
line, and the home of this bird is above that elevation. 

Cenirocercus tirophasiajiiis. Sage Grouse. A friend 
who has spent several years in this locality, tells me he 
once saw a Sage Grouse at about 10 000 feet on one of 
the Flat Tops. There was only the one, and it is the 
only one he ever saw at that height. A flock of about 
twenty of these birds were seen near here in January last. 

Agelaitis phccniceiis. Red winged Blackbird. P'lrst 
of this species for the season was noted on February 27, 
1898. Another was seen on March 17. Both were 
males. 

Sturnella magna neglecta. Western Meadowlark. 
A pair were seen at Dotsero, Eagle County, at the con- 
fluence of the Grand and Eagle rivers, at an elevation of 
6,100 feet, on March 17, 1898. They have not yet 
made their appearance in this locality, which is fifteen 
miles from Dotsero, and about 2,')00 feet higher. 

Piitiiola enucleator. PiNE (^rosbeak. Present in 
large flocks all winter. Have seen them from 8,000 
feet up. 

Spizella monticola ochracea. Western TreF Spar- 
row. Twelve or fifteen of this species are spending the 
winter near our cabin, feeding around a stack of hay. 
Have seen them nearly every day since December last. 
Though not a sweet songster, their little songs are quite 
cheering during the dreary winter months. 

Melospiza fasciata montana MOUNTAIN SoNG 

Sparrow. This sweet songster first made its appear- 
ance this season on March 8 . 

Auipelis garruliis. BOHEMIAN Waxwing. Have 
seen several flocks of this species numbering from four 
to thirty birds. Shot one on January 30, 1898. 

Laniiis ludoviciatms exaibitorides. White rumped 
Shrike. First of this season noted on March 21. 

Cinclus uiexicanus. American Dipper. 'J'his bird 
has been here in considerable jmmbers all winter. It is 
a very interesting bird, and sings very svyeetly. On 
October 3, 1897, I saw two at a small lake at timber 
line (about 11,500 feet) on the Continental Divide in 
Clear Creek County. 

Merula viigratoria propiitqua. WESTERN RoBiN, 
This bird wintered here during the present winter, else 
those noted are very early migrants. Dates on which 
they were noted are as follows: one on January 21, 
1898; one on February 10, 1898, and one on March 21, 
Six or eight were seen at Dotsero, Eagle County, on 
March 17, 1898. 

Sialia arctica. Mountain Bluebird. March 6, 
1898, saw first arrival of this species. 

Lynn B. Gilmore. 

Dotsero, Eagle Co., Colorado. 



Notes from Ann Arbor. 

A fine male Cardinal Grosbeak (Cardinalis cardinalis) 
was shot near this city in November, '97, and I shot a 
female in this county ten miles south of Ann Arbor on 
New Years Day. I also shot a Tufted Titmouse (Par us 
bicolorj on this same day. 



20 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



A fine adult male Golden Eagle was shot about fifteen 
miles north of Ann Arbor on Dec. 15th, 1897. 

Jn Nov , 1897, a Double crested Cormorant was shot 
near Saline, ten miles southwest of Ann Arbor. 

Near Ann Arbor on March 1.5th, 1897, a Rough legged 
Hawk (Ai'chibitteo lagopiis sancti-joliannis) was shot. 

I also wish to report the shooting of three young Great 
Horned Owls (Bubo virginianiis) about the middle of 
February, 1898. These birds were almost ready to fly, 
so they must have hatched in January. 

I wish to note a very early arrival of the Baltimore 
Oriole ( Icterus galbitla) on March 14th, 1897. This is 
the first time I have known this bird to arrive in March. 

The Bluebird seems to be rather plentiful here this 
spring. 

Norman A. Wood. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Occasional Bird Notes. 

In these days of marked numerical decrease of so 
many of our birds, it is gratifying to note the reappear- 
ance in increased numbers of an interesting species. 
Never before during the last six years have I observed 
so many Jiluebirds; they are plentiful about the city, 
and a little way out large flocks of them are to be seen. 

At time of writing, a White- winged Scoter [Oidemia 
deg/andi) is on the river near the town. It was seen 
first March 14th, 1898, by Mr. Rarden, and I went out 
and saw it myself. It is the first personal notice I 
have made of thi-; handsome duck in this vicinity. 

The deep snow has acted as a deterent to many of our 
earlier spring migrants, which are, however, putting in 
an appearance now. During the latter part of the 
winter our constant residents have had a pretty hard 
time of it; hunger has made them very tame, and on 
some half cleaned deer heads hanging on my stoop, 
could be seen almost any time. Downy and Hairy 
Woodpeckers and Chickadees busy at work. Sometimes 
the White bellied Nuthatches joined their company, and 
were so tame that I could stand within four feet of them 
and take snapshots of them with my camera without 
disturbing them in the slightest. Once a threat Northern 
Shrike swooped down amongst the Sparrows and carried 
off a screaming victim, raising consternation generally 
amid the feathered tribe. 

There is little to add in the way of the unusual, and 
neither the I'ine nor Evening Grosbeak have, so far as I 
can find out, been seen at all this winter in this section. 

Percy Selous. 

Greenville, Mich. 



Migration Notes from Old Orchard, Missouri. 

February 13. — The first wave of migration reached us 
Wednesday, February 9, when Mallards and Sprigs 
passed over in many flocks. The movement continued 
Thursday, when the therm.ometer reached 72 degrees, 
and all our winter birds felt the effect of tlie spring-like 
weather. 

February 24 — Report the following first arrivals : 
February 12, Baldpate and Green- winged Teal. 
17, Killdeer. 
" 18, Ring-necked Duck. 

" 20, Wilson's Snipe. 
28, Coot. 
Thousands of Sprigs are present now, mostly in corn 
fields. Few Mallards are to be seen and hardly any 
other ducks. Very few Blackbirds are here yet. 
Weather is not favorable for migration, there being 
strong westerly and northerly winds. 

March 11. — Since the 5th inst., when the temperature 



began to rise and the wind turned east, migration has 
been very active, especially during the first frostless 
night (March 8-9). The first Robins appeared at their 
breeding grounds on the evening of the 5th and morning 
of the 6th. On the 6th the arrival of Meadowlarks be- 
came apparent everywhere ; also the presence of large 
numbers of Song Sparrows. The first Field Sparrow 
was also heard and a Yellow-rumped Warbler seen on a 
blooming maple. On the 7th the first Turkey Vulture 
made its appearance. 

March 8 and 9 I visited the marsh forty miles north of 
here, apd found Meadowlarks in large numbers singing 
all day. Rusty Grackles, mostly males, and Robins 
were in big troops, as were also Flickers and Killdeers. 
Red-winged Blackbirds, males, had taken up their old 
stations on the breeding grounds, singing, but transient 
Red wings were itw yet, and Bronzed Grackles, none 
at all. Fringillidcc, especially Tree Sparrows and 
Juncos, were much excited and conspicuous in large, 
musical flocks. Towhees and Fox Sparrows, only a few 
of which had wintered, were in increased numbers, and 
the marsh was fairly swarming with singing Song 
Sparrows. 

The first thing heard on the morning of the 9th was 
the Phoebe, just arrived during the night. The first 
Kmgfisher and Mourning Dove was also seen. On the 
lake were large numbers of noisy Canada Geese and 
Ducks (mainly Sprigs, but also Mallards, Green-winged 
Teal, and l^aldpates). On the lately buint prairie was 
a flock of fifty Lapland Longspurs, which had wintered 
there. Their plumage, eapecially that of the male, is 
now assuming deeper colors, and with the chestnut nape 
and striped back it is a fine looking bird. Bluebirds 
have taken up their old haunts this week and their fre- 
quent carols mdicate the arrival of their mates or of rivals 
and neighbors. In the blooming maples and elms in the 
river bottoms are large gatherings of singing Purple 
Finches, but very few Goldfinches, and no White- 
throated Sparrows have yet arrived. 

March 17. — Weather has been favorable but birds are 
coming slowly. The following have arrived : 

March 13, Bronzed Grackles, first males at stand. 
" 14, first Mockingbird, bulk of the Field 
and Song Sparrows, bulk of the male, 
and a few female Phoebes. 
" 15, first Bewick's Wren. 
" 16, an increase of Bronzed Grackles. 
" 17, first White-throated Sparrow, bulk of 
the male, and some female Towhees ; 
bulk of the Fox Sparrows. Bulk of the 
Tree Sparrows have gone. 
March 24. — Four inches of rain in three days; a fall 
of 42 degrees in eleven hours; several inches of snow 
yesterday ; a hard freeze last night and a big thaw 
to-day. Following movements : 

March 18, first Golden crowned Kinglet, Ameri- 
can White fronted Goose and male 
Purple Martin, the latter at 5:52 p. m. 
" 19, male and female Purple Martin visited 

nesting box. 
" 22, first Brown Thrasher sings. 
Purple Martins have not been seen since the 19th ; 
probably went back south, but expect them to return 
tomorrow. 

April 2. — Very little movement ; the weather has 
been mostly cool, and four frosty nights retarded progress 
very much. Purple Martins have not returned yet. 
Brown Thrashers and Bewick's Wren are the principal 
songsters at present. Chipping Sparrows arrived on the 
25th of March, but are still scarce. The same is true of 
the female Bronzed Grackles, O. WiDMANN. 







Purple Finch. 

From "Birds of Village and Field." 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



21 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

/iDtcbtGan ©rnitboloGtcal Club. 

Published Quarterly. 

T. L. HANKINSON, Agricultural College, Mich., 
Editor-in-Chief. 
Associates : 
Percy Selous, Greenville, Mich, 

Miss Frances Margaret Fox, Bay City, Mich. 



W. EARI.E MULLIKEN, 



I 



Managing Editors, 



LEON J. COLE, [ 

191 First Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Subscription : In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly 
in advance. Single copies, fifteen cents. 

Foreign Subscription: Seventy-five cents a year to all 
countries in tbe Universal Postal LTnion. 

Free to Honorary Members, and to Active and Associate 
Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

Advertising rates sent on application to Managing Editors. 
Entered at Grand Eapids, Michigan, as second class matter. 



Exchanges and books for review should be sent to the 
Librarian, 25 Kellogg St., Grand Kapids, Mich. 

Articles for publication should be sent to one of the editors. 

All advertisements, subcriptions, or business communica- 
tions should be sent to the Managing Editors. 

Author's separates can be furnished at a very reasonable rate 
if application is made when the article is sent. 



Owiug to other and imperative duties, Editor-in- 
Chief, L. AVhitney Watkins, has been obliged to 
resign his position as literary head of the Bulletin. 
Mr. Watkins took hold of the Bulletin in its very 
start, and has aided largely in making it what it is. 
If in future years it is the lot of the Bulletin to be 
of material benefit to Michigan bird students, they 
will have to thank Mr. Watkins for taking hold of it 
when its success was even more than doubtful. Mr. 
Thos. L. Hankinson, the First Associate Editor, will 
succeed Mr. Watkins in this position. 



We would call the attention of our readers to the 
"League of American Sportsmen, " recently inaugu- 
rated in New York City. If for no other reason than 
the stand it takes against the killing of innocent 
birds and animals, not game, in the name of sport, 
in wantonness and for commercial purposes, the 
Michigan Ornithological Club should be in sympathy 
with this praiseworthy undertaking. On its execu- 
tive are the names of some of the first sports- 
men and naturalists in America. The secretary 
is Arthur F. Rice, of 19 west 24th St., New York. 
The official organ is "Recreation," the editor of 
which is president in conjunction with Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam, of WasMngton, D. C, W. T. Hornaday, 



director of the New York "Zoo," and others. The 
membership fee is one dollar, and those joining 
before June 1st, will be enrolled charter members. 

Mr. Percy Selous, of Greenville, will be glad to 
forward copies of the constitution and blank mem- 
bership forms, to any who may desire to join. 



On another page, we present a half-tone, represent- 
ing Mr. Leon J. Cole, in the act of taking a set of 
two eggs of the Red-tailed Hawk. This nest, thirty- 
five feet up in an oak tree was, in our experience, in 
a rather strange place, being in one of a few 
trees growing on a point of land extending into 
Chandler's marsh. We have always found tliis 
hawk nesting in rather dense woods and to find this 
large, bulky nest, in comparatively open country, 
was a novel experience to us. Several other views 
of this same nest, were secured by Mr. Hankinson. 
— W. E. M. 



As we go to press news reaches us that Senator 
Hoar has introduced a bill into Congress prohibiting 
the importation of feathers and portions of birds 
designed for ornamental purposes. The bill also 
prohibits inter-state trade in these articles. This 
bill has already passed the Senate, and is soon to 
be brought up in the House ; we would urge 
every person interested in bird protection, to bring 
all the pressure possible to bear upon his representa- 
tive to secure his cooperation in passing this measure. 
A strong lobby has been formed for the purpose of 
defeating the bill, and it will take all the efibrts of 
bird lovers to get it through. 



It is reported that the Avifauna^ a monthly maga- 
zine on Birds, published by Mr. W. H. Hoffman, of 
Santa Barbara, California, has again appeared, after 
a long suspense of publication. We wish Mr. Hoff- 
man the best of success in this second attempt to 
establish his magazine as a regularly appearing 
ornithological paper. 



The Auk for April, 1898, contains a valuable 
article on "The Economic Value of the White-bellied 
Nuthatch and Black-capped Chickadee," by E. D. 
Sanderson, of Cornell University. Mr. Sanderson 
graduated at the Michigan Agricultural College last 
year with the class of '97. This article was the 
thesis he presented for graduation. 

Mr. Ruthven Deane, of Chicago, 111., has a note in 
the April Auk on the "Passenger Pigeon in W^iscon- 
sin and Nebraska." He mentions several flocks of 
these birds that have been seen in these states, of late. 

Dr. Gibbs writes, under date of April 30: "My 
little girl, 13 years old, found nest and four eggs of 
Prairie Horned Lark, April 24 ; on the 26th, eggs 
hatched. On April 15, 1869, I found my first nest 
of this species — same number of eggs, and I was 13 
years old. Odd, 29 years later." 



22 



Bulletin of the Michigan Oenithological Club. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Birds of Village and Field. A bird book for begin- 
neis, by Florence A. Merriam. Boston and New York. 
Houghton, Mififlin & Co. 

It is a pleasure to take up such a book as this, and 
one of its principal charms is the love evinced by the 
authoress, throughout, ior her feathered friends. Miss 
Merriam lets us know at the outset, that it is of living 
birds she treats, one of her chief aims being to show the 
student that a fair, all around knowledge of ornithology 
may be acquired, and in a pleasurable way, without 
taking their lives. Passing over the preface, which is 
mainly an acknowledgement ol assistance rendered by 
various friends, we are gradually introduced to the haunts 
of the birds themselves ; hints are given as to how^ best 
to watch for them, particular stress being laid on their 
beneficial influence in destroying noxious insects ; and 
sundry ways and means of study, which will prove of 
assistance to those commencing bird study. 

Miss Merriam' s sensible "outfit," as she naively puts 
it, does not include a gun, or any other death dealmg 
device ; and it she has to give statistics, showing the 
proportion of insects found in the crops of various birds, 
we will wager our reputation that the death of no one of 
the innocents, lies at her door. As the sister o( such a 
scientist as Dr. C. Hart Merriam, it goes without saying 
that she was exceptionally fortunate, so far as the treat- 
ment of this portion of her subject with authority was 
concerned. A comprehensive Field Color Key, copi- 
ously illustrated, will be found of material assistance to 
beginners 

The statement at the commencement of the work that 
the writer would not adhere strictly to scientific nomen- 
clature prepared us somewhat, and we were not quite 
so much taken aback as we might have been at the de- 
lightful audacity which precipitates the student from the 
Ruby throat to the Crow ; from the Robin to the 
Chimney Swift, etc. It takes just a little time for the 
rigid classificationist — if we may coin the word — to get 
into line, so to say, but the cheery vein which permeates 
the book fiom cover to cover, quickly brings us into 
imaginary contact with the writer and through her, with 
her pets, and we read on with renewed zest. An illus- 
tration is given with almost every bird and in many in- 
stances, also of the insects of which they are more par- 
ticularly fond. This is a subject to which much atten- 
tion is given, and must tell strongly in favor of the birds. 
Comparisons are given of feet, wings, tails and beaks, 
together with much important detail ; but in no instance 
does the authoress lapse into a style which would tend to 
make the reading of the book too heavy for youthful 
students. However, as we proceed, it is interesting to 
note how Miss Merriam gradually comes under the sway 
of the inevitable, until by the time the "Raptores" are 
reached, we have practically a scientific sequence ; 
and so on with the "Warblers." 

To us the book is simply beyond criticism ; it is essen- 
tially a book for the young, and it is to the rising gener- 
ation, in these days, that we must look for that public 
sentiment which will be so all-powerful in aiding to en- 
force the laws for the protection of our wild birds. This 
does not by any means imply that much pleasure — and 
profit too — cannot be derived from the perusing of the 
work bv the more advanced ornithologist. We would 
strongly advocate that "Birds of Village and Field" 
should have a place in the library ot every Public School 
in the land. We would go further, and say that the 
subject of much of it should be made the basis of a text 
book for use in the schools, and thus supply a long felt 
want in the curriculum. 



When we add that we hope, when next Miss Merriam 
starts out with her note book she may have an adjunct 
in the way of a camera to her outfit, we have not the 
slightest intention of disparaging the very excellent illus- 
trations which accompany the text. Both Messrs. Fuertes 
and Ridgway are well known for their accurate and 
characteristic rendering of bird life, while Mr. E. S. 
Thompson, from his varied experience, is equally at home 
making a dainty etching of a couple of Goldfinches and 
nest, as he is at portraying a charging grizzly. 

We heartily wish this little book the success it de- 
serves. It is published at a price, practically within the 
reach of all, viz., $2.00, in pretty cloth binding. — P. S. 

In Brush., Sedge and Stubble By Dwight W. Hunt- 
ington, published by the Sportsman's Society, Cincinnati. 

The first sixteen pages of this work have just come from 
the press, and are sent out as the first of the twenty-five 
parts in which the book will be published. The work 
promises to be of a high class. The pages are of large 
size and of a fine quality of paper, printed with a clear, 
good sized type. The descriptions of the two birds, the 
Sharp-tailed and Sage Grouse, nearly covered in these 
sixteen pages, are very full and interesting. Mr. Hunt- 
ington describes fully the characteristics, haunts, and 
habits of these two Grouse, and in such a way ihat the 
description will be of interest and value to the ornitholo- 
gist as well as well as to the sportsman. 

Mr. Huntington has divided the Grouse into two 
classes — those of the open country and those of the 
woods and mountains. This classification, he says in an 
introduction, is not intended to be ornithological but 
sportsmanlike. He informs us that he writes for those 
who enjoy the sport afield, rather than the number of 
feathers in tail or covert. Although this book is intended 
mainly for the sportsman, we are sure that it is worthy 
of being read by every lover of birds. The book will 
tell us much about those interesting species that we call 
our game birds. 

Fourteen excellent half-tones and one colored plate, 
appear among these sixteen pages. There is one full- 
page plate showing a photogrophic study, from mounted 
birds, of the Prairie Grouse and the Sage Grouse. There 
are also a number of smaller cuts showing hunting scenes 
and various game studies. There is one interesting pic- 
ture from a photograph of Audubon's old fowling piece. 
The frontispiece is a colored plate of high quality, from 
an artistic standpoint. It is entitled "Ptarmigan 
Shooting." 

We wash Mr. Huntington the best of success with this 
work, and are sure it will meet a large demand by 
students of birds as well as those who love to roam the 
fields for pleasurable sport. — T. L. H. 

Ornithology of North Carol'na. A list of the Birds of 
North Carolina, with Notes on Each Species. Issued by 
the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Raleigh, N. C. Bulletin No. 144, October 30, 1897. 

This is a typical annotated State List. It is the first 
of the kind that has been issued by this Experiment 
Station, and without doubt is the most complete list of 
North Carolina birds extant. 

In the the preface, the author, J. W. P. Smithwick, 
M. D., gives a brief account of previous lists, from 
Catesby's, in 1670, to that of Prof. G. F. Atkinson, in 
1887. A map is appended showing the state divided into 
three regions : The eastern or tide water, including land 
east of a line at an altitude of one hundred feet above the 
sea level ; the middle or piedmont, bounded on the east 
by the two-hundred-foot line, and on the west by a 
similar one at an altitude of 'iwo. hundred feet ; and west 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 







23 



of this to the eastern border of Tennessee, is the western 
or mountainous region. Each of these districts has its 
distinctive avi fauna, and it is due to these varied condi- 
tions that so wide a variety of birds is found, especially 
of the summer residents, for among the mountains are 
found breeding many species which usually nest much 
farther to the north, while in the east the climate is mild 
and equable, being tempered by the Gulf Stream. 

The author lists three hundred and three species as 
occurring within the borders of the State, two of which, 
he stales, are included upon evidence that they once oc- 
curred and may be found again. A Hypothetical List 
of twenty-two species is given, most of which are water 
and shore birds. 

On the last page is an index to the families, which, 
though of little or no use to the advanced student, will, 
to the beginner, partially supply the want of a more 
specific index. Although not entirely free from typo- 
graphical errors, it is gotten up in good form, and al- 
together will prove an invaluable help to ornithologists, 
especially in that State. — L. J. C. 

Audubon and His Joui-nals. By M. R. Audubon. 
With Zoological and Other Notes by Elliott Coues. 
New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1897. 

Students of ornithology, in fact the eniire American 
public, has for many years past felt the want of an 
authentic biography of this man — the greatest of Ameri- 
can ornithologists. In the book lying before us we per- 
ceive that this want has been satisfied, for it contains 
probably as complete and authentic an account of the 
painter naturalist, as will ever be printed. 

In less than eighty pages Miss Audubon gives a brief 
sketch of her illustrious grandfather's life, a story of 
genius' struggle with poverty, well told and interesting. 

In the pages which follow, such of the journals as re- 
main intact are published ; these being ably supple- 
mented by numerous foot notes froin the pen of Dr. 
Coues. The text is illustrated by several of Audubon's 
unpublished bird pictures, numerous photographs of the 
naturalist himself, his wife and sons. It is one of those 
books which hold the reader's attention from cover to 
cover, and from which he feels, as he lays it aside, that 
he has derived good. It should be in the library of every 
ornithologist.— VV. E. M. 

Further Notes on the Birds of Colorado, by W. W, 
Cooke. Bulletin No. 44 (Technical Series No. 4) of the 
State Agricultural Experiment Station. Fort Collins, 
Colorado. March, 1898. 

This is an appendix to Bulletin No. 37, on the Birds 
of Colorado, which appeared in March, 1897, and is due 
to further investigation, re-examination of specimens and 
correspondence brought about by the appearance of that 
list. Fourteen more species have been added, making 
374 the total number of species and varieties known to 
occur in the state, of which 286 are known to breed, as 
compared with 228 in the original list. Several additions 
are also made to the excellent Bibliography of Colorado 
Ornithology, as well as to the History of Colorado 
Ornithology. 

In putting out so carefully and well prepared a list, 
which will prove of great value to the science, Colorado 
has set a good example for some of her sister states which 
have as yet done little or nothing in this line. — I^. J. C. 



riichigan Academy of Science. 

The Michigan Academy of Science held its fonrth 
annual meeting in Ann Arbor, ]\[arch 30 and 31, and 
April 1 and 2% On Wednesday evening, March 30, 
Dr. D C. Worcester gave a lecture on ""Spanish 
Colonial Administration," illustrated by stereopticon 
views from the Philippines. Thursday morning a 
general session was held ; reports of otiicers made, 
and new members elected ; followed by a short pro- 
gram, including an illustrated jjaper by Dr. Worces- 
ter on "Factors in the Origin and Di.'Jtribution of 
Species of Land Birds in Island Groups." In the 
afternoon the Sections of Botany and Zoology held 
separate sessions. 

On Friday afternoon the address of the retiring 
president, Dr. Yoliiey M. vSpaulding, was read by Prof. 
Newcombe, Dr. Spaulding being ill and unable to be 
present. The subject of the address was "A Natural 
History Survey of Michigan." and in it was set forth 
the need of a complete Biological and Geoloj^ical 
Survey of the State. This was followed by a busi- 
ness meeting, in which several amendments were 
made to the constitution, a.nd officers were elected 
for the ensuing year. 

Friday evening, a reception was given in the 
gymnasium by the acting president and faculty of 
the University, to the jNIichigau Academy of Science, 
the Michigan Schoolmasters' CUib, and the Classical 
Conference, all of which were convened in Ann 
Arbor at the time. 

Among the M. O. C, members at these meetings 
^vere Prof. W. B. Barrow^s. and Messrs. A. B. Covert, 
Bryant Walker, N. A. Wood, B. O. Longyear, R. H. 
Pettit, and L. J. Cole.— L. J. C. 



It was incorrectly reported in the last bulletin that 
Mr. Chas. Cass of Hillsdale had gone to New Orleans, 
La. As he was about to depart he was taken ill, and 
was obliged to postpone going till March 28th. 



Dewitt J. Oakley. 

It is with deep regret that we report the death of 
one of our most enthusiastic associate members, Mr. 
Dewitt J. Oakley. A number of our members be- 
came acquainted with Mr. Oakley at our last annual 
meeting, where he took an active part in all 
our discussion, and gave a number of good sugges- 
tions for the welfare of our Club. 

Mr. Oakley's home was in Detroit, where he was 
connected, for about sixteen years, with the Mer- 
chants' and Manufacturers' Exchange. He Avas born 
in Plymouth, Mich , July 26, 1850, and was educated 
in the Detroit public schools and graduated from the 
University of Michigan in 1 875. 

Mr. Oakley was not an active student of ornith- 
ology, but he admired and loved birds, and was in 
sympathy with ornithological work. He took an 
interest in it as he did in everything pertaining to 
the study of nature. 

Mr. Oakley had been in poor health for some time. 
Over a year ago, he went to Clyde, Ohio, for his 
health. The change seemed to benefit him, and he 
soon returned to Detroit but became w^orse. and again 
went to Clyde, w^here he died on March 18th, 1898. 

He has tw^o brothers, Ralph Oakley, of Detroit, 
and Rev. E. C. Oakley, of Romeo. Our treasurer, 
Mrs. F. A. Kelsey, is his sister. 



® 



24 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



Resolutions. 

In a realization of the urgent need of 
earnest, systematic effort in behalf of our 
beautiful song and insectivorous birds, our 
water fowl, our game birds and our birds of 
prey, with which God has so profusely 
blessed our land, tlie Michigan Ornithologi- 
cal Club has appointed a committee to put 
in words the sentiment and attitude of its 
members. 

This committe, feeling the honor done it 
in the responsibility and importance of the 
work assigned, has framed these resolutions 
wliich are respectfully submitted to the 
friends of birds. 

First, be it resolved : that we as a Club 
decry the wanton thoughtlessness of some 
small boj^s, and even of some men, who 
kill our birds whenever opportunity offers, 
and defense of their cruel practice simply 
say, ''that it is fun." 

Second, be it resolved : that we implore 
each member of the Michigan Ornithologi- 
cal Club and of members of like organiza- 
tions in our land, and of all persons who 
are making a study of birds, to spare in 
their necessity of collecting specimens for a 
reference collection in a most exacting 
study, all birds and nests and eggs not ab- 
solutely needed. 

Third, be it resolved : that we as a Club 
beseech in all kindness and implore the 
coc'peration of the women who use birds, or 
parts thereof, for ornaments upon their 
hats, thus creating a demand which seals 
the death-warrant of thousands of our 
sweetest feathered friends. Let each one 
try and be first to enlist in this noble work 
of kindness and mercy. 

Fourth, be it resolved : that we ask the 
ladies of the Woman's Clubs, and other 
like associations, to use their own personal 
efforts in this laudable work and to teach 
their children to love and to spare and pro- 
tect our birds and other animals, and to 
show kindness toward all living things. 

Fifth, and last, be it resolved : that these 
resolutions be printed in the Bulletin of the 
Michigan Ornithological Club. 

L. Whitney Watkins, 
Thos. L. Hankinson, 

Committee. 



f\ SuQQesiion. 

Great advancement has been made during 
the past few years in the study of ornith- 
ology and oology. The birds themselves 
have been carefully studied from an econ- 
omic standpoint. The localitj^ where 
found, their food, their nesting habits, the 
material of which their nests are composed, 
the color and number of eggs contained in 
each set, etc., all are receiving careful 
attention. But it seems to me that the 
exact time required for incubation among 
our various species of birds has been sadly 
neglected. At least, I know of no work 
treating upcni the subject in a proper man- 
ner, and I would therefore suggest that 
each member of the Michigan Ornithologi- 
cal Club make at least one record upon 
this subject this spring and summer, by 
selecting a nest as near as possible to his 
residence, where the eggs can be watched 
daily. The exact number of days required 
for incubation should be carefully recorded. 
But great care should be taken in regard to 
this, for a mistake would be misleading and 
worse than no record at all ; and I would 
further suggest that said records be pub- 
lished in our Bulletin so that everj^ mem- 
ber of our Club may be benefited thereby. 

James B. Puedy. 

Plymouth, Mich. 



Mourning Doves in Winter. 

On the morning of Feb. 20, 1898, I fought my way- 
through a terrific snowstorm to a patch of tangled grape 
vines and willow sprouts. Much to my surprise, I found 
there five Mourning Doves securely tucked away from 
the wind and snow. It was certainly a queer time of 
year to find a Mourning Dove in this part ot the State. 

Geo. H. Walker. 

Belvidere, 111. 

An American Bittern in Winter. 

On December 11, 1897, I took an American Bittern 
in a marsh about three miles north of Hillsdale. The 
bird was in good condition, and there was no evidence 
that it had been delayed in its southward journey by 
being sick or wounded. Chas. Cass. 

Hillsdale, Mich. 



Mr. W. E. Mulliken has recently accepted an excel- 
lent position with the Grand Rapids Brass Company. 

Our president, W. A. Davidson, received visits 
recently from Mr. Alexander Gow, Mr. W. P. Melville 
and James B. Purdy of our Club. 

Mr. Edwin S. Bryant left for Montana about April 
15, 1898, on his regular annual collecting trip. 




Waxwing. 



From "Birds of Village and Field." 



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1 



Vol. 11. No. 3-4, 



JULY-DEC. 1898, 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



Mionigan OrnWoolGal 6luD. 



^^^ 



Published in tlie interests ot Ornitholoou in Mlcliiflan. 



J 



Grand Rapids, Michigan. 












mf. 



CONTENTS. 

Bird Songs, I Jr. Morris tiibbs, .25 

The Praivie Hprnefl Larks, IIojaceF, Joiu^s, .'U 

The Rapid Disacppearance orqur JUrds.ol Prey 

awl the Result which must follow, Percy Selous, , 32 

Editorials, .34 

Simon Pokagon, 36 

Report of the Committee of the A. O. U. on 

Bird Protection, Percy Selous, ....'.. 36 

General Notes, 37 



Recent Occurence of the Wild Pigeon and Cardinal 

at All n Arbor. 
Orceiiviile Notes. 

A Remarkable. PUimage of our Common- Quail. 
A word about a great !|IorQed; Owl's Nest. 
Henslow's vSparrow and the Dickcissel in Ontario. 
Some Unusual Occurrences, 
Notes on Southern -Ohio Birds. 

Louisiana Tanager and Sprague's Pipit in Louisiana. 
Recent Literature, 40 



■' "V*'. 



NOV S 1^2 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



/IbicbiGan ©rnitbological Club. 



Vol. II, No. 3-4. 



Grand Rapids, Mich., July Dec, 1898. 



50 cts. per year. 



6p^ 



Bird SonQ8. 

DR. MORRIS GIBBS. 

LL birds that I have met with 
have means of expressing them- 
selves by sound, and though 
many are far from entertaining to man, it is 
reasonable to admit that the discordant caw 
of tlie Crow is as expressive to its mates as 
is the bubbling melody of the Warbling 
Vireo to the little Greenlets, or the gutteral 
honk to the Herons. These songs, call- 
notes and twitterings differ to a wide degree 
in the various species, but are nearly iden- 
tical in birds of a kind — tending to prove 
that the notes constitute a language, or at 
least a method of communication. 

There has appeared a work which, I 
understand, attempts to demonstrate the 
existence of a language among our near 
relatives, the monkej^s. I do not doubt 
that a language exists sufhcient for their re- 
quirements in every respect, but we are 
denied the privilege of compreliending it in 
the least degree. In fact, the notes of 
birds are as intelligible to our ears as the 
chattering of monkeys, and taken in con- 
nection with their movements are as ex- 
pressive of their desires as the sounds made 
by any animal we know. Then too, grant- 
ing that a language exists with each species 
of animal and bird we must admit that the 
single croak of the Raven comprehends as 
great meaning as the single faint chirp of 
the gorgeous Hummingbird ; and the ecstat- 
ic warble of the Bluebird is equally expres- 
sive with the discordant gutterals of the 
Herons or the weird cry of the Loon. 

There is much that is wortliy of observation 
in the songs of birds and the time spent in 
the study of them cannot fail to furnish 
entertainment. Aside from the pleasure of 
the true music, we may draw comparisons 
between the varied ditties, and also the 
ability is given us to liken many of them to 



tlie words of our language. It is this asso- 
ciation of the bird with its notes, expressed 
in words, which often leads us to name the 
songster. This is well exemplified in the 
names Whip-poor-will, Kill-deer, Bob-white 
and a dozen others. Then tliere are scores 
of others which are known by meaningless 
names; names, however, whicli are familiar 
to us and which almost exactly express the 
call-notes or songs. Under this class we 
find the Chick-a-dee, Che-bec, Plum-pud- 
den and Peet-weet. 

Many of these notes can be greatly varied 
and still meet our requirements, but we 
have relied upon them so long that usage 
makes them next to indispensible. When 
in the South I first heard the notes of 
the Chuek-will's-widow, a species nearly 
allied to our northern Whip-poor will but 
could not fully satisfy myself that the name 
and notes corresponded, but after becoming 
familiar with the nightly serenade, the notes 
resolved into the accepted name. Northern- 
born people who have moved to the South 
nearly all call this species the Whip-poor- 
will, not recognizing the difference in the 
notes ; yet, surely, if the songs diflfer to an 
extent equal to the English pronunciation 
of the names, then the diflference ought to 
be quickly recognized. 

To one familiar with the songs and call- 
notes of our birds, the association of the 
sound with the performer is instantaneous 
on hearing it. Nevertheless it is quite a 
rare thing for a stranger to identify a species 
by its notes, no matter how much alike are 
its name and notes. Yet it is easy for all 
to recognize the Jay-jay in the harsh 
scream of the Blue Jay after the attention 
has been called to it. No better name 
could describe our little door-yard flycatcher 
than the sound jplioe-he^ and yet it is also 
called Pee-wee as well, and both from a 
fancied resemblance to its short song. 



26 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



I have tried to copy the familiar Robin's 
song many times, but liave discarded all at- 
tempts as regards English words. Still the 
following, as some observers may fanc}", 
fairly describes the soft utterances : Jceeler- 
'keeler-henry ; wUliam-ioilliam-henry ; imll- 
iam henry Iceeler^ and so on indefinitely. 
The Meadowlark in flying over the field or 
wading about in the grass utters in a 
plaintive key the words dear children. If 
we pass near a marshy tract we hear the 
Redwings uttering their quirk call-note, as 
they fly above their nests in the rushes, or 
the male ruffling himself on a branch will 
issue his cher-e-e-e. From a clump of bushes 
near come the notes ha-ioheecJiy, uttered 
from four to nine times bv the Maryland 
Yellows-throat. He then dives into the 
brush and rank grass and gives us a series 
of fine scolding notes. As we pass he 
challenges us with tacHe-me^ taclde-me, or 
as you may call it witchety-ivitchety . The 
Bronzed Grackles are calling to one another, 
span]i\ sjoank^ and now and then a lustrous 
male grinds out, schleranch^ repeating it 
three times, to which Mrs. Grackle replies 
with schle-ree-scree-scree^ which is the extent 
of their musical ability. 

Away out in the marsh are a couple of 
those queer birds, the Thunder-pumper, as 
the greater Bittern is often called. The 
name is taken from their peculiar move- 
ments made when singing, so to speak. 
The song of spring and love floats to us in 
thunderous undulations — plum-pudden^ re- 
peated four to six times. This bird, often 
called the stake driver, has another 
peculiar note or song from which it gets 
one name. The sound is exactly like 
ha-whack^ uttered from three to six times 
and closely resembles stake driving with a 
maul. So perfect is the resemblance that 
it is a common occurance for a stranger 
to the bird to look about for a laborer 
at work. From the lake comes the wild, 
unearthly notes of the Loon or Great 
Northern Diver, ho-a-wee-loo-loo-loo^ or 
again, key-hoe., reverberating and pen- 
etrating. 

Returning toward the farm house, we 
pass close to a cock Quail, which heralds 
that he is hoh-hoh-iohite from the top of 
the fence. Yery few strollers are aware 
that this species says hoh twice, but those 



who observe at close quarters will detect it 
at once though the first hoh is so indistinct 
as not to be heard at a distance. Passing 
through a dense piece of woods, a number 
of Acadian Flycatchers are seen and 
their woiQ^.Jce-peel'-uj), ^vq heard all about. 
Above, in the shady top of a tree a Wood 
Pewee is pouring forth his melodious 
refrain pee-ivee-o-wee-pee-wee \ slowly issuing 
with plaintive, lingering quaver, wliicli 
causes one to think the dear little singer 
unhappy. But it is not so, as it is its love 
song and answers the same purpose as the 
pathetic resonant song of the liappy Mourn- 
ing Dove. 

Emerging from the woods we listen to 
the loud imiperious song of the Baltimore 
Oriole in rivalry with the gushing melody 
of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Both of 
these birds, as well as the Indigo-bird near 
at hand have songs that it is impossible 
to describe on paper. There are many 
songs of birds which no power of the pen 
can portray, and we can truthfully say that 
the best of bird melodies are those which 
cannot be transferred to paper. This then, 
is an acknowledgement tliat - bird music 
is of superior quality, and the feathered 
tribe is possessed of factors in the realm 
of harmony which we are unable to criticise. 

There are nearly fifty species of Michigan 
birds which have songs of merit, but if they 
were fully described, no one unfamiliar 
with bird notes would recognize a bird 
by its song description. 

That there is an expression of feeling 
in the notes of all of our birds, uo 
true lover of our feathered friends will 
attempt to deny. We are all willing to 
admit of tlie existence of a bond between 
them and us, and this assumption of a 
hio:her relation we do not care to have 
destroyed or dispelled by an opinion 
against the sentiment of our dear lit- 
tle associates. Nevertheless, although I 
am anxious to invest these creatures, 
''favorites of creation," as Figuier so 
beautifully terms them, with higher at- 
tributes of feeling and expression, it re- 
mains a fact that their notes do not 
change in quality as a result of change 
in emotions, at least so far as we are 
able to judge. Let us consider some in- 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



27 



stances. A pair of Robins will make a 
great outcry if their nest is molested, the 
excited notes of the male corresponding to 
the battle cry when the birds are mating. 
Other Kobins join the hue and cry and the 
neiofhborhood of birddom is aroused, for the 
birds understand and all lend their 
sympathy and bluster. If the nest is 
robbed the pair quickly subside, and 
tiie male will probably be singing the 
same evening ; surely the next morning. 
Within a few days a new nest is begun 
in the same neighborhood or the old 
one is again occupied, the song continually 
proclaiming the joy of the happy pair, 
so far as we can judge. 

I have carefully noted the actions of 
the bereaved birds in many cases, and 
it is always about the same. In one 
instance where a nest of the Warbling 
Yireo was robbed the male quickly re- 
turned to the vacant nest and there 
sang with greatest joy, apparantly, for it 
is the habit of the male of this species 
to sing on the nest. It may be that 
the song expressed sorrow, or at least a 
complaint, but to me the same ecstatic 
warble was heard that was always given 
to my ears. I have watched in the 
vicinity of the nests of the Scarlet Tan- 
ager, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Wood 
Tlirush, Hermit and Indigo-bird, all fine 
singers, and have observed that all 
apparently quickly recovered from the 
effects of spoliation and sang within 
twenty-four hours after. In each instance 
the male tuned up and sang as sweetly 
as ever. 

The species of birds that sing when 
flying are very few. Of the many birds 
which utter simple sounds on the wing 
I am not speaking, for they are in large 
numbers. If we consider notes of birds 
as expressions of sentiment, then all sounds 
may be called songs, especially may this 
be considered true of spring notes. Ad- 
mitting this, then there are over one 
hundred species which sing as they fly. 

All of the hawks and other rapacious 
birds that I am acquainted with, utter their 
discordant cries and screams when upon 
the wing ; the Red-shouldered, Marsh, and 
Cooper's Hawks, and the Screech and 



Barred Owls being especially noisy in 
season. All of the herons utter their 
gutteral notes when on the wing, altliough 
the more difficult notes of the American 
Bittern are not given on the wing. The 
smaller waders give utterance as they fly, 
and most of the ducks have been heard, 
wliile the geese are notorious gabblers 
during migration. Sandhill Cranes issue 
their notes as they sail, sometimes out of 
sight. Nighthawks make their only efforts 
while on the wing, as we should expect 
with a 'dpecies which earns its entire 
living while flying. Its near relative the 
Whip-poor-will sometimes flies singing 
through the woods in spring. 

The Woodpeckers are a noisy set, and 
without an exception issue the clatter which 
answers in the nature of a refrain on 
the wing. All hunters have heard the 
scape of the Wilson's Snipe, the single 
note of the flying Woodcock and the 
agreeable efforts of the Killdeer, Spotted 
Sandpiper and the Upland Plover, the 
latter really musical, and many others of 
the smaller waders. 

In the Gallince and Coluinbm we have 
a list of silent birds when flying, though 
the Mourning Dove, Quail and some 
others are noisy on the perch. 

Among the birds which are acknowleged 
singers the following seven musical species 
are presented as birds which I have heard 
singing when flying. The Bobolink is 
the acknowledged leader in flight song, 
in fact his rollicking, jingling medley is 
about equal in excellence to that of any 
bird w^th which I am acquainted. The 
common Bluebird is a charming exponent 
of flight singing. It occasionally flutters 
upward and pours forth its soft warble in a 
most enchanting manner just after arriving 
from the South. 

The Warbling Yireo rarely, in a trans- 
port of bliss, during the mating season, 
launches into the air while yet singing and 
apparently forgetful of custom, strives to 
make us mundane creatures as happy as 
itself. This agreeable songster is one of my 
favorites, and no one who is a lover of 
bird melody can remain indifferent to its 
ecstatic warblings. 

In May and June we sometimes liear the 
loud gushing song of the Rose-breasted 



28 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



Grosbeak as the gaudy male flits through 
the foliage near his prospective home. 
Even with this undignified flyer, who 
generally progresses by undulating vigorous 
dashes, we can detect a hesitating flutter 
when the bird sings on the wing. 

Another bird that sometimes sings on 
the wing, is the White-rumped Shrike. 
It is not generally known that this Shrike, 
or for that matter, any other, has a song. 
I have heard the song several times and 
can testify to a series of very agreeable 
notes nicely modulated. We cannot call 
the song really melodious, but it is still 
possessed of uniqueness, as it is essentially 
unlike the notes of any other bird of my 
acquaintance. I once heard this Shrike 
sing as it flew in tlie characteristic manner 
of flight singers, on fluttering wings. 

The true love-song of the Golden- 
crowned Thrush or Oven-bird has been but 
rarely referred to by writers, in fact, the 
best musical eff'orts of this species have 
only been described in comparatively 
recent times. The loud clanking chirpings, 
so often heard, have been listened to by all 
observers, but a superior strain, apparently 
only occassionlly uttered, has been listened 
to by but few intelligently. I feel safe 
in saying that no bird among us which is so 
well known, has eluded the observers of 
bird songs as this one has done. 

I listened to the love song of the 
Oven-bird for the first time in 1880. A 
burst of melody reached me in a dense 
piece of low woods, well filled with 
underbrush, and the delightful notes were 
surprising and doubly pleasing to me in 
this location. At first on hearing the song 
the idea presented itself that a species new 
to me was singing, and my extreme care in 
reaching the glade in hopes of securing 
a note, procured me a chance of witnessing 
a most singular performance. Crawling 
through the brush I came to a partial 
clearing, over which a bird, evidently in 
the highest transports of joy was fluttering 
in irregular flight. It is not surprising 
that I failed to recognize the performer 
in this, to me, unusual aspect, for there 
was not one feature in its notes or 
movements in which it resembled its or- 
dinary and understood habits. 

Observing another bird, evidently a 



Golden-crowned Thrush, and its mate, 
perched on the ground near, and which 
appeared to be the center of attraction 
to the delighted warbler overhead I 
quietly awaited the movements of the pair. 
Never had I heard this song before and 
never had I witnessed such a scene. This 
was indeed making love with a spirit not 
often witnessed among our warblers. This 
son^ was almost continuous, that is, to- 
gether with the interruptions of the more 
subdued call or conversation-notes, and the 
common chattering notes, so well known, 
and described by Coues as a harsh cres- 
cendo, and was largely of the most melo- 
dious strains. The energetic, unconscious 
fellow was in the meantime constantly 
flying above his inamorata, describing near- 
ly every form of flight except sailing. 
First dashing to the edge of the glade, then 
rising to the tops of the bushes he would 
flutter almost directly upward as we have 
often seen the European Sparrow or House 
Wren do, and reaching a height of twenty 
feet or more, would half flutter toward 
his mate, or dash about the clearing in 
varying evolutions, almost" constantly 
singing. She, in the meantime, sat silent 
and probably interested in the perform- 
ance. The appearance of a third party 
on the scene, undoubtedly also a lover, 
caused the ecstatic singer to dash into 
the brush. 

This song of ecstasy is rare, as is 
also the much simpler one of the Yesper 
Sparrow, which also goes into a raptur- 
ous songflight occasionally. The Finch 
rises into the air fifty feet or more but 
not as rapidly as the Bobolink, and gen- 
erally settles back near to the point 
from which it took its fiight. The Bobo- 
link sings as well when perched as in fiight, 
though not so continued, but the Grass 
Finch's song when on the surface is very 
commonplace, while its flight song like 
that of the Oven-bird is superior. 

A number of species of birds embraced 
in the systematic division of singers, 
aside from those species spoken of, are 
known to utter their notes on the wing, 
and from the Crow to the Martin, which 
is the nearest to a musician among the 
swallows, there are many which give 
their best efibrts when flying. Among 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



29 



these is the Prairie Horned Lark, which 
comes very near to being a singer, and 
which has a flight of special interest ; still 
these efforts are not sufficiently musical 
to entitle the birds to rank in this list 
of musicians as accepted by critics. 

It will be observed that a tremulous 
motion of the wings almost invariably 
accompanies song-flight. We may main- 
tain then, that the quivering of the wings 
is an accompaniment to the song is a strict- 
ly seasonal feature. All have noticed 
the loss of the song synchronously with the 
skyward flight flutter in the case of the 
Bobolink, when he assumes his summer 
dress and prepares to move South and 
become the plebeian Kicebird. I have yet 
to hear a bird sing on the wing in the 
autumn. 

We have no regular night singers in 
the Great Lake Region, so far as 1 am able 
to learn, and in this respect America 
does not equal England, which has several 
nocturnal songsters, one of which excels as 
a musician. The famous English natur- 
alist, Gilbert White, records three species 
which sing at night in the British Isles. 
They are the Reed Sparrow, which 
sings among the reeds and willows, the 
Woodlark, singing in mid-air, and the 
Nightingale, as Milton describes it, — "In 
shadiest covert hid." 

There are several species of owls which 
roll forth or screech out their notes at 
night, and also numerous shore birds 
and water-fowl that issue their varied calls, 
and especially these latter, who are partial 
to night travel, spring and autumn. 
Then, too, our Whip-poor-will confines his 
singular but monotonous jargon to the 
hours of darkness, while the scream of 
the Nighthawk more often breaks on the 
ear between the setting and rising of the 
sun. But these birds are not, strictly 
speaking, songsters, although their notes 
undoubtedly fill their requirements as to 
harmony and expression. 

The plain, domestic little Chipping 
Sparrow sometimes favors us with its 
simple chatter in the darkest night. 
The notes hardly deserve the name of 
song, but heard issuing from the sur- 
rounding gloom, the simple refrain com- 



mands our attention from its oddity at 
the unusual hour. The Wood Pewee 
not rarely quavers forth its plaintive 
offering, sounding in the depths of night 
like a wail from a departed spirit. This 
favorite songster is a remarkably early 
riser, as he is also late in going to rest, 
and I have sometimes thought that his 
musical efforts at night were the result 
of an error on his part — an idea strength- 
ened by the fact that the notes are rarely 
heard more than once or twice during 
the night, and moreover the song is 
only occasional, and only in the nesting 
season. 

Other species which are heard to burst 
forth in ecstatic melody, are the Swain- 
son's and Hermit Thrushes. If 1 could 
describe the songs of birds, so that other 
bird-lovers could understand them as 
I do. I would feel that a partial ac- 
knowledgement had been made to the 
divine melody issuing from these birds' 
throats. 

The Cuckoo also sings at night, or at 
least bubbles out its peculiarly emphasized 
jargon, which is called a song out of 
courtesy rather than from any real merit. 
Both species, the Black-billed and Yel- 
low-billed Cuckoos favor us, but the former 
is more aubundant. 

We often hear that the best singers 
are the ones of plainest dress, but this 
is assurredly not so in all instances. If 
one is permitted to listen to the sweet 
refrain of the Scarlet Tanager in the night, 
it will be acknowledged that the brilliant 
coat of the songster does not compare 
in point of excellence to the owner's divine 
song. 

These birds are the only ones at the 
North that I am acquainted with that 
sing during the hours of darkness, and 
not one of them is a regular singer in 
the night. Information has reached me 
from no less an authority than Mr. Robert 
Ridgway, of Washington, to the efi'ect 
that the Yellow-breasted Chat is a perform- 
er in darkness. 

Among birds the females do not sing, 
and although many species have musical 
call-notes and agreeable tones in conver- 
sation, which are shared in by both sexes, 




From «'Bird Studies." 

C{ urtesy of (J. P. Pntnam"p Sons 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



31 



still the true song is only rendered by 
the male bird. I am sincere in saying that 
the lady bird talks more than her mate 
about the house, but I will admit that 
when away from home she is very dis- 
creet in this respect. In attending to 
her duties of incubation she is verj^ quiet, 
and it is seldom that a note is heard 
from her while on the nest. It has 
been said that all birds are silent when 
incubating, so as to avoid observation ; 
although most species are quiet when 
setting, there are a few which chirp loudly 
when so engaged, and some even burst into 
exuberant song. 

Few observers are aware how assidous 
are the attentions of the two birds to one 
another during incubation, and the credit 
which is due to the father-bird in his 
devotion in covering the eggs in his mate's 
absence is not allowed him. 

Of course, when a bird is heard sing- 
ing on the nest we know that the notes 
come from the male, but many young 
observers are inclined to attribute it to 
the female. Another source of error in 
failing toidentifj^ the sex occurs with those 
species in which the male assumes the 
plumage of the female until the second 
or third year. 

The Chipping Sparrow sometimes sings 
his chattering refrain while upon the eggs. 
Yellow Warblers are not rarely heard 
singing from the nest, but one has to 
wait patiently in a neighboring copse, at 
the proper season, in order to see, hear and 
be convinced. 

I have once heard the Marj^land Yellow- 
throat's song from its concealed nest in the 
grass ; in fact, I found the nest from 
hearing the peculiar notes almost at my 
feet. Several times the song of the House 
Wren has reached me from the cavity 
where the old bird was sitting solacing 
himself in his cavernous nesting spot. 

Once, each, I have heard the notes 
of the Black-billed Cuckoo, Scarlet Tana- 
ger, Orchard Oriole, Goldfinch, Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak, and the Hermit 
Thrush, the latter the only Thrush whose 
song positively reached me from the 
nest. One would think that the Brown 
Thrasher, Cat-bird and Robin, as great 
singers, would burst forth on the nest. 



but it must be borne in mind that these 
thrushes prefer higher perches for singing, 
while the Hermit is a ground nester and 
often sings on the ground. 

But of all the species which are musical 
while setting, the Warbling Yireo heads 
the list, both for persistence and for beauty 
of song. Anyone can listen to the song of 
the Warbling Yireo on the nest if the 
trouble is taken to find a nest with eggs in 
May or June. For when the mate takes 
his trick keeping the eggs w'arm, he cheers 
himself, and enlivens the surroundings 
by his rippling, inspiring melodious warble. 
I have heard him sing from the nest in 
early morning, in the hottest part of the 
day, and in the early twilight, and I 
have heard him issue as many as twenty 
bursts of song during one spell on the nest, 
and have discovered the nest on more than 
one occasion by the sweetly modulated 
tell-tale song. 



The Prairie Horned Lark. 

H. F. JONES. 

WHEN the fields are covered with 
snow and the mighty winter 
king has sent most of the feath- 
ered tribe to their southern homes, then 
is the Prairie Horned Lark in his glory. 
On one of the coldest and bleakest days 
of winter I saw a pair of Larks chasing 
each other and singing merrily, seeming to 
bid defiance to the cold weather. Last 
month they were more common than 
during any other month so far. One 
day I saw a flock of eight plump Larks 
hunting for food on the crust over a foot of 
snow. 

As the winter days decline and spring 
is ushered in with its green grass and warm 
sunshiny atmosphere, the Lark partakes of 
the delightful influences just as do the rest 
of us. But these davs are not ideal ones 
for him, for I have heard him singing 
his prettiest songs on a dark and cloudy 
day in a drenching rain. I have not been 
able to imitate the notes of the Lark to 
much eff'ect as they are repeated so quickly 
and run together. The Lark has two 
songs ; the one, the short quick tones 
which, when heard indistinctly, sound like 
the squeaking of a wagon wheel ; the other, 



32 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



the same as the tirst with a considerable 
addition. The second song is more mus- 
ical and has a wider compass than the first. 
The Lark sings mostly just before sunset 
and on rainy days. The male, I think, 
does all the singing, but the female utters a 
few indiscrimnate tones once in a while. 

The Lark is the first small bird to begin 
nesting in this locality. The first nest I 
have record of being taken was on March 
30th, but the incubation was advanced 
in this and I think the set must have 
been complete March 25. This nest was 
placed in a field and was a slight depres- 
sion in a bunch of sod. It was loosely 
built of dr}^ grass, small weed stalks 
and rootlets. The nest contained four 
eggs which were white blotched and spec- 
kled all over with brownish drab, but the 
heaviest markings are at the large end. 
I am confident that this same bird built 
another nest soon after this one was 
taken, and completed another set of eggs, 
because when a man was ploughing the 
field next the one where the first nest 
was located, he ploughed up a Lark's nest, 
breaking the eggs. 

The next account T have of this bird is 
May 23, 1895. At that time asparagus 
season was at its height. The asparagus 
bed had been covered with some straw 
and it was a pretty good place for a bird to 
conceal a nest, and if I had not seen 
the bird building the nest I should prob- 
ably not have found it at all. May 23 
I saw the bird carrying material to the 
nest, and I was very much delighted, for 
I had never found a Lark's nest. The 
bird evidently was in no hurry to build 
and it was almost a week before 
the nest was completed. This nest 
had been placed between two growing 
asparagus stubs and more were likely to 
grow through the nest. Well, the Lark, 
after she had her work about done sur- 
veyed the nest, and taking all things 
into consideration she gave it up as a bad 
job. I was thunderstruck. That was a 
case where I had counted my eggs be- 
fore they were laid. 

But my hopes were to be renewed 
again for on Saturday afternoon I saw 
the Lark again with some building material 
in her bill. Watching where she deposited 



this I found there a new nest just com- 
menced. That night I slept well. Next 
morning, Sunday, I went out into the 
asparagus bed to see how Mrs. Lark 
had progressed in this building venture. 
To my great surprise, what should I see 
but a completed nest containing one egg. 
And all this done since 4 p. m. Satur- 
day. One egg was laid each day there- 
after until four had been deposited. As I 
had to cut asparagus each day Mamma 
Lark soon became accustomed to my 
presence, although at times when she 
had tlie blues or her husband didn't act 
to suit her, she would rise straiglit 
above the nest, on a level with my head 
and peck at me, often nearly striking 
my face. As incubation advanced I could 
easily approach to within one foot of 
the nest without the bird taking wing. 

In two weeks from time of tlie laying 
of the first egg the brood was hatched 
and in another week the youngsters left the 
nest — first egg laid on Sunday ; eggs hatch- 
ed on Sunday ; birds left nest on Sun- 
day. After this I saw no more Larks 
on our place. 



The RaDid DisaDDearance o? our Birds o\ 

Preu and the Result Which 

Must Follow. 

PERCY SELOUS. 

THIS is no new subject, and if it 
has been threshed — which I do not 
admit — it will bear threshing again. 
Six consecutive years' residence in this 
state convinces me, from careful observa- 
tion, that our hawks and owls are getting 
scarcer and scarcer. This is probably 
owing to some extent to the clearing oflT 
of the timber, to the draining of swamps, 
but considerably also to the war waged 
on hawks in general wherever opportunity 
offers. To the average individual every 
hawk is a henhawk whether it be a 
Cooperii or a Circus and consequently 
must die ; and this is an upsetting of the 
balance of the laws of Nature which will 
have a very prejudicial result. When 
we take into consideration the immense 
fecundity of many injurious rodents as 
compared to the one or two hatches of their 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



33 



bird enemies during a season, the sequence 
must be obvious. Now we have not to 
find this out for ourselves. It is only 
necessary to turn to England, where the 
game laws, even now, are almost as feudal 
as they were, and where the idea of protec- 
tion of bird or mammal that prejs in game 
would be vigorous!}^ opposed ; and we find 
that the practical extermination of the Rap- 
tores has allowed the rats and the mice 
to increase to such an alarming extent as 
to compel the legislature to face the out- 
look and declare that the agricultural inter- 
ests of the country are greater than those of 
the game preserves; and now the hawks 
and owls are rigidly protected under heavy 
penalty. 

Incidentally I may state that as long ago 
as 1890 I had seen over one hundred 
rats killed while threshing one stack of 
wheat and fully as many escaped to 
propagate their kind. This too, is not 
at all an out-of-the-wav statement. Almost 
any farmers would bear me up on their 
own experience. 

Australia, and New Zealand also, are 
importing birds of prey, and stoats and 
weasels at immense expense in the hope of 
restoring the balance somewhat that the in- 
troduction of noxious rodents bad upset. 

Neither must we lose sight of the fact 
that besides our indigenous rodents, 
especially the field vole, the gopher, and to 
an extent the chipm\jnk, the Hanoverian 
rat has come to stay. Time was when 
England knew them not; now they are 
a scourge. The same will happen here 
if we are not careful, and it will take 
more than the domestic cat to keep them 
down when they once get the upperhand. 

Now in our legislative assemblies nat- 
ural history is not always reduced to a 
science. A member may be a very good 
lawyer but a very indifferent orinthologist ; 
and have a vague idea as to the difference 
between a ''hawk and a hernshaw." 

You all know ; but it is not so with 
the farmers generally, neither is the 
relative value of these birds made suf- 
ficiently clear in our schools to the rising 
generation of young agriculturists. It 
appears to me that the M. O. 0. could 
do much in this direction by detailing some 



of their members in each district to set 
the stone rolling. 

There is an old and somewhat coarse ad- 
age which has it, that if you would get 
most readily to an Englishman's heart, 
it should be through his stomach. I 
have also heard it whispered, that the 
nearest way to the heart of the American is 
through his pocket. Probably there is a 
certain amount of truth in both. The 
point is that if we can persuade the 
young farmers that the hawks and owls are 
really their friends, even if they take toll 
occasionally, that there are "dollars in it," 
it will do more towards protecting the birds 
than any state enactment. Take tlie 
matter of the skunk, for instance, in the 
hop raising districts ; let any one kill one 
and see the result. 

Sooner or later the legislature will see 
the matter in its true asnect, but there 
would be some credit to the M. O. C. 
if we took the initiative. 

Through the courtesy of the Union 
Metallic Cartridge Co. I am able to see at 
a glance an abstract of the laws pertainino^ 
to o^ame and birds in everv state and 
territory in the Union. In two states only, 
is any member of the Raptores protected. 
In all others they are omitted from the list 
of favored birds or else specified as needing 
destruction. In Ohio the eagle is pro- 
tected ; it does not sav which, so it 
must mean all. In Michig'an the Bald 
Eagle. This is all right and as it should 
be. Long may he fly. Notwithstanding 
the same, his private character does not 
compare favorably with that of the Cir- 
cus^ which bird, by the way, should 
have rigid state protection throughout 
the Union on its merits--it and the 
buzzards. I fear the eagle is a sad rogue 
with a very vague idea of the law of 
''meum and tuum." 

It is no use saying that there will always 
be plenty of hawks and owls. Remem- 
ber the Passenger Pigeon, where are its 
millions now? The Bufialo — there is no 
sentiment in this case. What has hap- 
pened in other countries will come to 
pass here if proper precautions are not 
taken ere it is too late. 



34 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 

/IDtcbtGan ©tnttbological Club, 

Published Quarterly. 

LEON J. COLE, 703 Church St., Ann Arbor, Mich., 
Editor-in-Chief. 

Associates : 

Percy Selous, Greenville, Mich. 

Dr. Robt. H. Wolcott, Lincoln, Neb. 

W. EARLE MULLIKEN, ) 

}■ Managing Editors, 
A. B. DURFEE, ( 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 



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Owing to the departure from the state of Mr. 
Hankinson, who has filled the office of Editor-in- 
Chief so capably, the Bulletin witli this number 
again passes into new hands. The board of editors, 
taken as a wliole, however, is very little changed, 
leaving those with experience still iu charge. It 
will be the endeavor of the editors to maintain that 
standard of excellence which has already been set; 
no attempt will be made at present to enlarge, but 
all effort will be directed toward perfecting the 
quality of the'BuLLETiN and insuring its regular 
appearance. If we shall in so doing provide a means 
for the exchange of thought and notes between our 
iiiembers; make permanent and accessible many im- 
portant records which would otherwise be lost, and 
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sired number of Bulletins, but the threbled subscrip- 
tion list, enlarged membership, and greater activity 
among the ornithologists of the Great Lake Region 
are some of the good results of the year. With the 
new volume we have determined to publish in four 
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which, although not yet complete, has progressed 
far enough for us to see that we have secured our 
object. Having accomplished this much, our aim 
will now be to enlarge our subscription list and as- 
sociate membership enough so that it will be un- 
necessary to call upon the guarantors for any assist- 
ance; and in this matter we ask your assistance. 
Renew your subscription promptly and see if you 
cannot secure two or three additional ones. It will 
take but a single subscription from each of our pres- 
ent members to place the Bulletin on a good finan- 
cial basis. 



The MacMillan Company announces the publica- 
tion in February, 1899, of the first number of a 
bi-monthly magazine entitled Bird-Lore. Mr. Frank 
M. Chapman is to be Editor, while articles are an- 
nounced iu the first volume from the pens of such 
well known writers on birds as John Burroughs, 
Olive Thorne Miller, J. A. Allen, and others. It 
will be the official organ of the Audubon Societies, 
which will have a special department under the 
charge of Mrs. Mable Osgood Wright. 



With this issue we present, we trust, the last 

double number of our Bulletin, The past year in 

some respects has been a successful one; viewed from 

another point, not so successful as it might have 
been. We have, it is true, failed to get out the de- 



In the April Bulletin, I called attention to the 
"League of American Sportsmen" and the stand it 
takes for the protection of our native birds. I hope 
some of our members may see their way to join this 
organization, or some other, which pledges itself to 
assist the executive of the game laws. Hereabouts, 
unfortunately, the law is practically a dead letter. 
We have game wardens for the districts and that is 
all we know about it. What we do know is that 
the law is broken all the time. The robbing of 
nests and egg continues unabated and I have yet to 
hear of a conviction or even a reprimand. The Ruf- 
fed Grouse are shot all along and a few days back 
ten Wood Ducks were shot on a water hole two miles 
north of this city, while on the Bay they are being 
shot at at all times. Our State Game Warden can- 
not do much unless he can have the assistance of the 
local wardens and if they won't do their duty let 
the members of the L. A. S. organize so that they 
can give the necessary information which may lead 
to the punishment of the lawbreakers. But it is 
difficult for one to do what a few could manage with 
ease. I am afraid Greenville does not stand alone 
but it is very certain that things relating to game 
protection here are very bad indeed. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



35 



We have before us Vol. I, No. 1 of the Bulletin of 
the Cooper Ornithological Club. This Club has had a 
steady and healthy growth ever since its organiza- 
tion in 1893, and has accomplished some excellent 
work. Heretofore it has depended upon what space 
could be afforded in the current magazines for the 
publishing of its proceedings, which has always been 
too limited to meet the demands of the Club. The 
direct result of this is the establishment of the Bul- 
letin — a ipaper of its own, to be published bi-month- 
ly. It is printed in Santa Clara, Califorina, and is 
in charge of the following editoral staff: Chester 
Barlow, Editor-in-chief; Henry Eeed Taylor and 
Howard Eobertson, associates; Donald A. Cohen and 
A. J. McCormick, business managers. 

This first number quite appropriately has the 
front cover adorned with a half-tone of the California 
Vulture. The frontispiece is a picture of Dr. James 
G. Cooper, after whom the Club was named, and 
the first five pages are taken up with a sketch of his 
life. This is followed by other articles and notes 
in every way a credit to the Club. 

The Bulletin is printed on a good paper, is well 
gotten up, and is very neat typographically. 

The M. O. C. Bulletin presents her compliments 
to her western sister, and wishes the members of 
the Cooper Ornithological Club all success in their 
new undertaking. 



The Editors of the Bulletin extend their congratu- 
lations to Mr. L. Whitney Watkins, who has recent- 
ly been appointed a member of the State Board of 
Agriculture by Gov. Pingree. 

During the last two years Mr. Watkins has been 
doing some excellent work for the protection of our 
birds and game in the capacity of deputy game war- 
den, and we feel confident that not only will he 
perform the duties of his new office with credit, but 
will also do whatever lies within his power to ex- 
tend the knowledge of our birds among the farmers 
and others of our State, and to impart to them a true 
understanding of their feathered friends. 



The many readers and friends of the Osprey 
thoroughout the country will be pleased to learn 
that this popular exponent of ornithology which has 
so long held its place as the leading monthly maga- 
zine devoted to the subject, is still in the field, 
though coming from a new quarter. Last fall, short- 
ly after the issue of the September number, it passed 
into the hands of a new company located in Wash- 
ington. The appearance of the first numbers from 
the new house was long delayed, the October and 
November numbers coming together early in Janu- 
ary; the December and January numbers are in the 
printer's hands and will soon be out."^ There have 



also been several changes in the editorial staff of 
the paper, it being edited now by Dr. Elliott Coues 
and Theodore Gill, with the assistance of Mr. W. A. 
Johnson, and Louis Agassiz Fuertes as art editor. 
It suffices to sav that under the guidance of Dr. 
Coues, the Osprey' s friends will have no fear for its 
future. 

The two numbers at hand present a slightly 
changed general appearance, but in no way do they 
deteriorate from the high standard which this publi- 
cation has maintained. Perhaps the best article in 
the October issue is "A Trip Across Lower Califor- 
nia," by George P. Merrill and illustrated with five 
plates. Two very interesting articles in the No- 
vember number are "The Home of the Ivory-bill," 
by ]Mr. Robert Ridgway, recording a two months' 
sojourn near one of the great cypress swamps of 
Florida, during which time only two specimens of this 
rare bird were taken, although two pairs were lo- 
cated and the nests found; and "The Enchanted 
Isles," by Rev. Herbert K. Job, an account of bird- 
nesting in Dakota. Both articles are accompanied 
by several illustrations. 

Dr. Coues informs us that the Osprey will be con- 
tinued, for the present, along the same lines as 
hitherto, but with the prospect of soon increasing in 
size. It is also proposed, if the increased subscrip- 
tion list permits it, to begin in an early number an 
"entirely new popular yet scientific treatise on the 
Birds of North A7?ierica^ in the form of a separately 
paged monthly supplement, profusely illustrated. 

We heartily recommend the Osprey to 3.nj of owt 
readers who are not already subscribers. 



The October Auk (1898) contains an excellent color- 
ed plate of Kirtlaud's Warbler [Dendroica kirtlandi,) 
followed by a paper by Mr. Frank M. Chapman giving 
notes on the species and a list of recorded captures. 
In the last Auk f .January 1899, p. 81) Mr. Chapman 
adds some further notes, making the "total number 
of known specimens of this Warbler seventy-five, of 
which fifty-five have been taken in the | Bahamas 
and twenty in the United States.'' It is interesting 
to note that of the twenty records for the L^nited 
States five are from Michigan. These are: female, 
Ann Arbor, May 15, 1875, A. B. Covert: female, 
Ann Arbor, May 16, 1879, A. B. Covert; male, Bat- 
tle Creek, May 11, 1883, N. Y. Green; male, Straits 
of Mackinac, May 21, 1885, AVm. Marshall (most 
northern record; killed by striking lighthouse); fe- 
male, Ann Arbor, about May 1, 1888, Mr. Kuaj)p. 
This last specimen, which is in the Museum at the 
University in Ann Arbor, is the only specimen of 
the species now in the State. 

* The December number has Just reached, us (Jan. 30.) 
Besides other excellent things it has a full page plate of the 
Blue Jay, by Fuertes. 



36 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



We are in receipt of a letter from Mr. Jno. "W. 
Daniel, Jr., saying that on September 1, 1899, he 
Avill begin the iDublication of a bi-monthly maga- 
zine to be called the "Bird and Egg Field." The 
announced staff includes several well known 
ornithologists and oologists. 



SIMON POKAQON. 

Death overtook Chief Simon Pokagon at his home 
in Lee township, Allegan County, on January 27th, at 
the age of nearly seventy-four years. Chief Pokagon 
was a full blooded Indian, the last chief of the Pokagon 
band of the Pattawattomies. He was born in 1825, a 
few miles from South Bend, Indiana, but soon after 
came to live in Southwestern Michigan. While but a 
young boy he was converted to the Roman Catholic 
Ixiith by an Indiana missionary who also incited in him 
a desire for learning, or as he himself puts it, "This 
noble Christian missionary greatly impressed me with 
the wonderful things white men could do, through the 
mighty inventions and discoveries they had made; and 
these so excited my love of the marvelous that my 
youthful heart thirsted night and day to drink from the 
fountain of knowledge at the white man's school." As 
a result he was sent to Notre Dame, where he remained 
four or five years; but desiring a more liberal education 
he went to Oberlm, Ohio. 

By a treaty of 1833 a great deal of land belonging to 
the Indians was sold to the government and Chief Poka- 
gon' s principal employment for years has been the look- 
ing after the annuities due his people. It is said that 
his father sold the land on which Chicago is now built, 
at the rate of three cents an acre. 

Simon Pokagon was a broad man and a good writer, 
and was often called upon to address historical and other 
societies. He was a guest at the opening of the World's 
Columbian Exposition in 1893, and was honored by 
first ringing the new bell of liberty on Chicago Day. 
At the same time he made a speech in behalf of his 
people, which was later published in booklet form on 
the bark of the white birch. Many of his writings have 
appeared in magazines and papers throughout the 
country. He was not bitter against the white man as 
might be supposed, but that the great changes in his 
home and his people wrenched his heart cords is shown 
when he exclaims, "All, all, has changed, except the 
sun, moon and stars above, and they have not because 
the Great Spirit, in His A^isdon, hung them beyond the 
white man's reach!" 

Pokagon was not an ornithologist, but was a good 
observer as well as an ardent lover of birds. One of his 
articles, together \\ ith a picture of the author, was pub- 
lished in the April, 1897, issue of this Bulletin. The 
current number of Recreation has an excellent article by 
him on '■• Ktigo-ge, the Wild Goose." 

Not only his friends will mourn his loss, but all those 
who take an interest in his declining race. The path- 
way of his life was none too smooth and he had on this 
earth his share of sorrow; so ^\•e cannot but ieel that it 
was with a sigh of relief that he passed from this troubled 
world to join his friends who have gone before in the 
Happy Ilunting Grounds of his fathers. 



A circular has just been sent out to the members 
of the Michigan Academy of Science by its secretary, 
Prof. W. B. Barrows, announcing that the Fifth An- 
nual Meeting of the Academy will be held at Ypsi- 
lanti beginning Thursday, March 30th, 1899, and 
lasting two or more days according to the number 
of scientific papers presented. The Michigan School- 
master's Club will meet at Ypsilanti on Friday and 
Saturday of the same week. A full program, to- 
gether with other announcements will be issued a 
week or more before the meeting. 

Report of the Committee of the A. O. U. 
on Bird Protection. 

This report, published in the ^z^;/' of January, 1899, 
should ])e in the hands of every bird lover in the 
land. It is too comprehensive to admit of more 
than cursory reference here, but some of the con- 
clusions may be emphasized. To begin with it is 
satisfactory to see that Michigan is not behind hand 
in the good work. The stand taken by the Union 
with regard to the taking of birds' eggs is laudable 
in the extreme and it is to be hoped that all Ornitho- 
logical Bulletins will follow in line and expunge 
all those "egg hog" advertisements so much in evi- 
dence. The plume hunter curse is well expounded 
and it is gratifying to note that the milliners in 
many of our large cities are in sympathy; whilst the 
immense good which must result to the cause by 
the giving of proper lectures and talks in our schools 
cannot be overestimated. The necessity of framing 
a specific act for the protection of our Hawks and 
Owls is steadily becoming more patent and could 
not have one more qualified to form an opinion than 
Dr. C. Hart Merriau. Miss Merrian ably makes a 
plea on behalf the birds which, though protected in 
one State, have only to cross the boundary into 
another to be ruthlessly slaughtered, notablj^ in the 
South, and Mr. Mack ay champions the cause of those 
which meet with a similar fate when their instinct 
call then North. The League of American Sports- 
men is justly credited with doing good work, and 
Mr. Hornaday's report on the Destruction of our 
Birds and Animals as well as Senator Hoar's bill 
on behalf of a law to prohibit the importation of bird 
plumes for ornamentation purposes, should be read 
by all and where possible acted upon. Whilst en- 
gaged in the pleasant duty of calling attention to 
the good work going on, it is sad to have to refer to 
anything like retrograde laws. It is assurely by 
far from creditable to Massachusetts that the sea- 
son on shooting certain ducks should be extended 
just at the time when they are going North to breed. 
It is a matter of sincere regret also that Mr. Mackay 
feels that he cannot remain at his post a little while 
longer. It is a pity he didn't have a few such men 
as .ludge Pettengill of Boston to advocate his cause. 
Want of space precludes more detailed allusion to 
this very interesting and useful report of Mr. Wit- 
mer Stone, but as it is to be published in very cheap 
form for distribution it is to be hoped that the op- 
portunity of reading it in its entirety may be taken 
by all having the welfare of of our birds at heart. — 

P. S. 

Mr. James B. Purdy, \\hile attending the Street Fair 
at Kalamazoo, called on Dr. Morris Gibbs. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



37 



GENERAL NOTES. 

Recent Occurrence of the Wild Pigeon {Ectopistes 

migratorius) and Cardinal (Cardinalis 

cardinalis) at Ann Arbor. 

October 1st, j898, word was brought me of the occur- 
rence of a large flock ot Wild Pigeons feeding about 
twelve miles from this place. The morning of October 
3rd found Brown Peter in the buggy shafts, carrying the 
writer and his wife at a good clip over good country 
roads for the Township of Salem, Washtenaw County. 
An hour's ride found me on the ground. The pigeons 
were feeding on new land that had raised a crop of 
buckwheat still standing in the shock. 

On my approach the flock took wing, but I was soon 
snugly hidden in a natural blind and in an hour's time, 
I should judge, the flock had all returned. I remained in 
my hiding place until the farm bell warned me it was 
the dinner hour, so after gathering a basket of mush- 
rooms I returned to the house. 

After dinner, as I again approached the field, the 
birds took wing but soon returned. Near my hiding 
place stood a dead walnut tree, and at many times 
during the day from three to twenty birds would be 
perched thereon, while on the ground was a constant 
movement of wings as the birds in the rear seemed to be 
jumping over those ahead. I should judge there were 
about two hundred birds in this flock, and had I so 
desired, many times during the day I could have 
slaughtered from a dozen to twenty birds by using 
both barrels of my gun, but at four o'clock I left them in 
peace; not a gun had been fired or a pigeon molested — 
a day well spent with Nature and Nature's God. 

I afterward learned that a few days following my visit 
four things in the disguise of men sneaked on to these 
birds and at one discharge slaughtered about fifty of 
them, causing the remainder of the flock to take its 
departure. 

Sunday, December 18th, a small boy brought me 
a "Red Blue Jay," stating that it was killed Thursday, 
Dec. 15, inside the city limits on West Huron St. A 
few days after this a resident of that street who takes 
more than ordinary interest in our birds, asked me 
if I thought it possible for the Cardinal Grosbeak to 
winter with us. I was as immediately alert as "a bird 
dog on a hot scent of quail" for his reasons for 
asking, when he informed me that the latter part of last 
March or the first part of April a pair of Cardinals 
had made their appearance at his place, remaining 
all summer; but that he had missed them during the 
autumn; about Dec. 1st they had again made their 
appearance, and his wife had seen them quite frequently 
since. I then told him of the combination of the small 
boy, shot gun, and "Red Blue Jay," and I'm afraid the 
next shot gun, accompanied by a small boy, found in 
that region will find it unhealthy. 

A few days since I called on the lady above mention- 
ed, and she told me she last saw a Cardinal Jan. 
4th, and that it was a dull colored one. Further 
questioning of the residents ot that neighborhood 
revealed the fact that quite a few had seen the birds 
the past summer. One old gentlemen in particular told 
me of its loud whistling song, and said that it came every 
morning to a certain apple tree. He had cautioned 
the above mentioned small boy that he must not kill the 
bird, and he became very indignant when he learned 
of its death. 

It will be remembered that on Dec. 3, 1897, 
Mr. C. S. Burnham took a fine male, " near Cedar 
Bend, along the Huron river, this city, and that on Jan. 



1, 1898, Mr. Norman A. Wood took a female ten 
miles south of here. Are the Cardinals to become 
residents of lower Michigan? A. B. Covert. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Greenville Notes. 

On April the 10th (1898) a Rough legged Hawk, 
which had been wounded by a boy, flew across the 
swamp and settled in my garden and I could identify 
the species with ease. As I went for my gun it flew 
back across the swamp and was again shot at by the 
boy, but the bird escaped. This is the first time I have 
seen one during my residence here of six and a half 
years. 

The cold wave which passed over this section on June 
25th played sad havoc with the Ruby throated Hum- 
mingbirds, many of which were picked up under the 
flowers, aud I myself found one dead in my own garden. 

On July 27th there were three Greater Snow Geese on 
the river above the bayou. I am sorry to say that 
one was shot and another wounded, but I was unable 
to trace the actual offender. 

The telephone wires and electric lights are responsible 
for the deaths of many birds. Last week I picked up a 
Carolina Rail uuder the wires and a few days previously 
a hoary or silver- tipped bat [Lasitirus cinereiis), 
both of which had broken their wings against the 
network of wire. Putting on one side the Sparrows, 
the Purple Martins breed much in the roofs of the lights 
and nest, eggs and young are ruthlessly cast on to 
the ground to perish. The law is no respector of 
persons, but the electric light seems to claim exemption 
apparently. 

Last year I alluded to the scarcity of Nighthawks 
in and over Greejiville, compared to former years 
when they were plentiful. This year I have been 
very careful to note and have up to the present seen two, 
one on May 17th and one on August 28th. 

Jan. 16, 1899. There is a large flock of Cherry 
Birds feeding on the maples in this city and in company 
with them are some dozen or so of Bohemian Wax- 
wings, easily distinguishable by their larger size and 
darker color. This is the first time I have seen this bird 
in this county during my residence here of nearly 
seven years. 

Percy Selous. 

Montcalm County, Mich. 



A Remarkable Plumage of Our Common Quail 

{Coliniis z'irginianiis.) 

A few days since I had the pleasure of spending 
an afternoon with Mr. L. J. Cole. In looking over 
his collection I came across the skin in question, 
which Mr. Cole kindly presented to me. The following 
is a very fair description: Forehead and superciliary 
line, white; throat black with a broad white patch 
on either side, this \\hite patch being bordered all 
around with black which forms a broadly defined 
streak from the bill underneath the eye well down 
the side of the neck: the black also invades the 
lower neck, forming a broad band across lower 
throat; upper parts of breast brownish red, each 
feather being crossed with two black bars; rest of under 
parts white, each feather being narrowly skirted 
with black, producing a similar shelly or scaly appear- 
ance to that of the Scaled Partridge {Callipepla 

* An account of this capture was recorded in the April, ('98) 
number of the Bulletix, page Itt, but the date was, by mistake, 
iriven as Kovember. 



38 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 



sqitainaia.) Upper parts are as in the normal plumage 
with the exception of a peculiar bluish bloom, such 
as is seen on plums, grapes and fruit of a like nature. 

The label reads as follows: Sex, male; date Oct. 
16th, 1897; locality, Michigan Agricultural College; col- 
lectors, L. J. Cole and W. B. B. 

Adolphe B. Covert. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., January, 1899. 

A Word About a Great Horned Owl's Nest. 

On the 30th of March, while I was passing an after- 
noon in a grove of oaks near Burgess Lake, I was sur- 
prised to notice signs of occupancy about a nest built by 
a Red shouldered Plavvk, and decided to investigate. 
On ascending to the nest, which was in a large white 
oak, I was pleased to find that appearances had not 
deceived me. The nest contained two down covered 
Owls and one egg just about to hatch. I extricated the 
youn(3 bird from the egg and took the shell home with 
me. The old birds were very solicitous about their 
offspring and would not lea-\'e me, but flew around 
hooting, and, as it seemed to me, cui'sing me. On 
again visiting the nest on the 25lh, I was rather surprised 
to find that the young bird AAhich I had aided in its 
entrance into this world, had survived my rather rough 
handling, and was seemingly as healthy as the other two 
birds, although somewhat smaller. On again visiting 
the nest on the 30th, I found but two young birds in the 
nest, one of the larger birds having disappeared, and 
the smallest had a small mark on the top of his head as 
though he had been injured. During the last two visits 
to the nest the male was not to be seen, although the 
female still guarded her treasures. It may be that the 
male had been killed, and that the young Owl was killed 
by a Hawk or Crow during the absence of the female in 
search of food. As it is rather uncommon for the 
Great Horned Owl to lay three eggs, and as it is also 
somewhat out of the ordinary for a young Owl to be 
aided in his hatching by the rather rude hand of man, I 
thought that perhaps this would interest the Club. 

C. B. Rarden. 

Greenville, Mich. 



Henslow's Sparrow and the Dickcissel 
in Ontario. 

The Dickcissel {Spiza aniericana) is by no means 
rare in the western end of the Ontario peninsula, 
having been noted commonly at Point Pelee and the 
nearby mainland in June, and in fair numbers west 
of Chatham in June and July. In the first year of 
the dearth of Bluebirds there were five males noted 
near London and one at Ottawa, and one nest with five 
eggs was found near London on the farm of a bird-lover, 
who hoped they would come again next year; but 
they ungratefully didn't, although they raised their 
brood in safety. Individuals have been noted near 
the northern shore of Lake Erie in various years, 
but they are not known to be regular breeders east 
of Chatham. The first capture, which was at Point 
Pelee, is recorded in the Auk, Vol. II, page 307. 

Henslow's Sparrow is a new addition to tire Canadian 
fauna and was first found on May 24th, 1898, by 
Mr. H. Gould, of London, and myself, near the mouth 
of the Thames river. 

In our two visits about ten birds were noted 
and two shot. They were living in the wet, grassy 
pastures close to marshy land, and were certainly the 
most inconspicuous birds either ofus had ever seen. The 
first one we pursued because of its peculiar flight, which 



we thought belonged to no familiar bird and we had 
to shoot it on the wing with our little Stevens' 
bicycle guns, because it would not permit any other 
view. While chasing it we heard the song (?) of 
the male consisting of the syllables "tse lep," and it was 
so unobtrusive that we passed it by aud only recollected 
it as a bird note on June 12, when we heard and 
saw others near the same place. I can offer nothing 
new in regard to its life history — indeed we made 
very little acquaintance with the birds at all, but 
were laid for next year! They were 
very unobtrusive and very hard to get; 
seldom showing themselves, even on a mullein stalk, and 
even then, generally at long range. When on the 
ground they are almost invisible and seem to keep 
a very sharp eye on intruders. After finding them 
so comparatively common at the mouth of the Thames it 
was very interesting to find two of them — males — on 
July 2, near Sarnia, Ont., and within 2 miles 
of Lake Huron. These were evidently breeding 
birds with nests well hidden, but their attachment to one 
locality betrayed their story. 



what plans 
very quiet. 



All along the shore 
suitable breeding grounds 
confidently expect to meet 
in our western counties, 
the same ground. Mr. 



of Lake St. Clair are 

for this species, and I 

them at every opportunity 

Michigan has probably much of 

W. A. Davidson tells nae he has 



hunted especially for them without success, but I feel 
sure that they will yet be proven not uncommon in 
suitable localities W. E, Saunders. 

London, Ont. 



Some Unusual Occurrences. 

A fine specimen of the American Goshawk 
[Accipiter ntricapillus) was shot near this place 
December 24th, 1898. This fine hawk has been 
taken in various places throughout the state, but this 
is the first one taken in Wayne County to my knowledge. 

A Belted Kingfisher was observed on December 29. 
Although they are reported as occasional during mild 
winters, this is very late for one to be seen on our 
small streams. 

In the latter part of October an Eagle was caught near 
Northville (this county) by a German, who saw it 
dive after a flock of Quail in a thick growth of raspberry 
bushes, in which it became entangled. Rushing upon it 
he caught it by the butts of its wings, and it is now 
in the grocery store of Fry Bros., in Northville. I 
was summoned by postal to identify the bird, which was 
somewhat difficult to do as it was in the immature 
plumage; but the legs were feathered clear doiun to 
the foot, which caused me to think it was a young 
Golden Eagle. To make sure I sent a description 
of the bird to Dr. Elliot Coues, who replied, "If 
your Eagle is feathered down the shanks to the roots 
of the toes it is the Golden Eagle." This is, I 
believe, the first specimen of this species that has 
been taken in this locality. 

Some time during September, 1898, an American 
Barn Owl {Strix pratincola) was shot by Mr. Abraham 
Sheffield near Salem, Washtenaw County. The bird 
was mounted by Mr. Wm. Starks, of Northville, and 
is now in his possession. This is the first record of this 
l)ird being found in this locality that I know of. 

James B. Purdy. 

Plymouth, Wayne Co., Mich. 

Snowy Owls {Nyctea nyctcd) have made their 
appearance in southern Michigan in scant numbers this 
winter. 



Bulletin of the Michigan Oknithological Club. 



39 



Notes on a Few Southern Ohio Birds, 

I take this opportunity of publishing a few notes on 
some of the raver species of Southern Ohio birds. Let it 
be remembered by the members of the Club that the 
territory in whicli these observations were made has 
really never before been thoroughly explored in regard to 
its avi fauna. In the January number, 1898, of the 
BULLETIN I promised to look for Bachmann's Sparrow 
in Scioto Co. again. Therefore I spent two weeks 
in the spring and two in the fall in Scioto Co. for 
this purpose, but did not succeed in my undertaking. 
But on April 28th while looking for Bachmann's 
Sparrow I found a nest of the Woodcock with four 
incubated eggs. The bird was so tame that a farmer 
who was ploughing nearby had to touch it with 
the handle of his whip before it flew up. In connection 
with this I take the liberty of publishing the follow- 
ing notes: 

1. Golden Eagle [Aqtdla cJirysai'tos). Prof. W. M. 
Clayton, superintendent of the Waverly Public School, 
told me of an "Eagle claw" which had come into his 
possession and spoke of it as being feathered to the toes. 
Upon request he brought it to me, and it proved 
to be the gigantic foot of a Golden Eagle. Further 
investigations showed that the owner of the foot 
had been shot near Thanksgiving, 1896, in Ross 
Co., just across the Pike Co. line. 

2. Saw- whet Owl (jA^'f/'rt'/rt: acadica.) A specimen of 
this species was shot on Nov. 26, near the Scioto 
river, by a small boy with a revolver. It is the first 
record for the County of Pike. 

3. Barn Owl {Strix pradncola.) This Owl, though 
not iust common, has been a resident of Pike and Scioto 
counties for the last 8 or 10 years, according to all notes 
gathered, in. I mounted a fine female adult in August 
and a young one on Sept. 5, which I had kept 
in captivity for a few days. 

4. Pileated Woodpecker {^CeopJdceus pileatus.) In 
some forests here some 7-8 specimens are to be found. 
The birds are so shy I have not been able to secure 
one yet. They are so erratic in their place of 
habitation that several may be seen and heard one 
day and none the next. 

5. Tennessee Warbler {Hebninthophila peregrina.) 
This Warbler was seen and taken for the first time 
on Sept. 24lh at Piketon, was then seen in great 
numbers on Oct. 3 and 4, near Wheelersburg, Scioto 
Co., on the banks of the Ohio river. On Oct. 19 
the last one was taken in Waverly, Ohio. This 
species had never been seen before. 

6. Wilson's Warbler [Sylvania pusilla.^ A female 
was shot by me on the banks of the Scioto river on Aug. 
25th, -which leads to the conclusion that this bird 
may possibly breed in the state. 

7. Hooded Wai'bler {^Sylvania miirata.) Not so 
rare a summer resident as in other yeai-s. A male 
adult taken on Sept. 30, at South Webster, Scioto 
County, Ohio. 

8. Cape May Warbler (^Dendroica tigrina.) I was 
so fortunate as to secure a young female of this 
species on Oct. 3 near Wheelersburg, Scioto Co. It was 
one of a pair and was shot out of the dizzy heights 
of a sycamore on the banks of the Ohio river. 

9. Pine Warbler {Dendroica vigor sit.) A young male 
still partially in first plumage was shot on Oct. 
5 out of a number of 5 or 6 near the canal at 
Waverly, thereby giviving the first breeding record of 
this species for Ohio. A note of it was sent to the 
<'Auk" in Sept. 

10. Philadelphia Vireo {Vireo philadelphicus.) This 



bird, so erratic in its migrations, was a common 
spring migrant on May 1 and 2, near Wheelersburg, 
in an apple orchard on the banks of the Ohio River, 
It was also a common fall migrant, outnumbering 
all other migrants, on the banks of Beaver Creek, 
at Piketon, but it always stayed in the utmost tops of the 
trees together with various kinds of warblers. There 
I secured my specimen, a fine male, on Sept. 24th, 
and could have taken any number of specimens I 
desired. Future observations will undoubtedly prove 
this species to be decidedly common in the state. 

11. Purple Gallinule {^lonornis niartinica.) A fine 
male (juv.) shot on Nov. 15 on the banks of the 
Scioto River at Waverly, was brought to me the next day. 

It is in a very interesting phase of plumage. All the 
specimens which Wheaton mentions in his "Birds 
ot Ohio" were taken in March, April and May, likewise 
one specimen recorded in the Auk., Vol. XIV, No. 2, 
page 200. Mr. Oliver Davie in his "Nests and Eggs of 
North American Birds" states that it has been taken 
several times in Central Ohio in June and July. 
My record appears to be the first fall record from 
the state. This fact and the age of the bird are to 
my opinion sufficient to warrant its having been 
reared in the state, and I do not hesitate to put the 
purple Gallinule down as a breeder in Ohio. A note 
concerning this was also sent to the Ktik. 

12. English Sparrow {Passer dojuestiais.) An 
almost perfect albino, with only a few brownish spots on 
the wings, was shot in Waverly on Sept. 24th and 
s now in my Collection. The fall migration was a very 
late one, and as late as Nov. 25th I secured a young male 
of Agelaius phoeniceus (Red Winged Blackbird) and 
a fine male of Tiirdus aonalaschkae pallasii (Hermit 
Thrush) these being my latest records, and I also believe 
them to be the latest for the state. 

Rev. W. F. Henninger. 
Waverly, Pike County, Ohio. 



Louisiana Tanager and Sprague's Pippit 
in Louisana. 

On March 19, 1898, I was on a collecting trip 
in Jefferson Parish, across the Mississippi from New 
Orleans, and noticed a Finch-like bird feeding on the 
buds of a small tree. I shot it, and on picking it 
up was very much astonished to recognize a young 
male Louisana Tanager ( Piranga ludovidana. ) This is 
very far out of the way for a bird of "Upper Mis- 
souri region and British Columbia" and is besides 
very early as compared with the arrival here of our other 
Tanagers. 

On Nov. 24th, while ^ on a Snipe hunting trip 
across the Mississippi from New Orleans, I was 
rather surprised and very much pleased to find five 
Sprague's Pipits [Anthus Spragiied.) The note, man- 
ner of flight, etc., were very typical, and I had excellent 
opportunities for observation. The birds were in 
the more elevated, grassy parts of the field, but took 
no particular care to avoid, the water, and I saw three on 
the same ground irom which I flushed a snipe. I 
secured one, a female in good condition though 
dull- colored. These are the first I have seen here 
for a long time, though in '95 about the same 
number were observed, later in the season and 
in the same locality. Mr. H. H. Kopman and 
myself were the observers, and we took one specimen. 

Andrew Allison. 

New Orleans, La. 



ttO 



Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club, 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

In Brw&h, Sedge and Stubble By Dwight W, Hunting- 
ton. Part II. The Sportsman's Society, Cincinnati. 

The second sixteen pages of this beautiful work have 
reached us, and after carefully looking it over, we 
can but endorse what was said about it in our April 
issue. 

A photographic study of the Canada Grouse and 
a colored sketch, "Sunset in Dakota," accompany 
the text, which is also illustrated by several other 
halftones. The text completes the account of the 
Sharp-tailed Grouse, includes that of the Pran-ie Grouse, 
and makes a beginning on "The Grouse of the 
Woods and Mountains." 

Part III has a photographic study of the Blue or 
Dusky Grouse. The text is made up of an account 
of the Ruffed Grouse and the Canada Grouse, or Spruce 
Partridge as it is called. A really beautiful and 
artistic thing in this part is the photograph of 
a game piece made with a dead Grouse placed 
against a background with a few sprigs of wild berries 
and sumach. 

The photographic study m Part IV is of the 
Ptarmigan. There is also a colored plate, "Blue 
Grouse Shooting," by W. A. McCord, and as 
usual numerous halftones are interspersed throughout. 
After finishing that of the Dusky Grouse, this part 
takes up the description of the Ptarmigan. — W. E. M. 

The Birds of hidiana. A descriptive catalogue 
of the birds that have been observed within the 
state, with an account of their habits, by Amos W. 
Butler. Contained in the Twenty-second Annual Re- 
port of the State Geologist, for 1897. 

This catalogue takes up 673 pages of the report of the 
State Geologist of Indiana for 1897, and is besides being 
the latest, the most complete account of the birds of that 
state ever published. Previous lists are one by the same 
author in 1890, and a "Catalogue of the Birds 
of Indiana," by Dr. A. W. Brayton, published 
in 1879 and now long out of print. 

A total of 321 birds are credited to the state; and 
a hypothetical list of 81 species is added to this. A 
concise description is given of each fauna, together 
with an account of the range, and a description ot 
the nest and eggs, followed by full notes on 
the occurrence of the bird in Indiana, and sketches of its 
habits, food, etc. Mr. Butler's twenty -one years' obser- 
vations form the basis of this report, but he has also 
had the assistance of the ornithologists of his own and 
the neighboring States, and has made use of available 
lists and periodicals. Good keys are given for the inden- 
tification of species, and illustrations have been used 
from the reports of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

In the introduction are printed the Indiana laws rela- 
tive to birds, an account of the situation and general to- 
pography of the State, a sketch on Bird Migration, and 
a Bibliography of Indiana Ornithology. — L. J. C. 

Bird Studies. An account of Land Birds of Eastern 
North America, By W. E. D. Scott. With 166 il- 
lustrations from original photographs. New York and 
London: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1898. Quarto, leath- 
er back, in box, $.5.00 net. 

Among the many books on popular ornithology that 
have appeared within the last few years "Bird Studies" 
is entirely novel and holds a place of its own. It treats 
of all the land birds of Eastern North America, giving a 
short untechnical description and notes of each; in this 
it does not differ essentially from many others except 



in the entire avoidance of all technical terms ordinarily 
used; but in the matter of illustrations it is unique, as 
much as one third of the book being taken up by these, 
which are all reproductions from photographs and over 
half of them full page plates. The author says that the 
song and color of birds are two factors which will have 
to be acquired by the student, but that form and color 
pattern can be portrayed; and this fact he has well de- 
monstrated. The photographs have been taken from 
live birds, from mounted groups, from dead specimens 
and from skins. We do not remember having seen the 
latter two tried before and were somewhat surprised at 
the good results obtained. Of the former, it is safe to 
say that the novice will in many cases be unable to tell 
the live birds from the mounted, and it would not be 
strange if more experienced heads than his were some- 
times puzzled. 

In dividing the birds treated in groups according to 
the places which they commonly inhabit, it is question- 
able whether the author has made a wise move — one 
that will help the beginner more readily to find the 
species desired, for a bird that is found "About the 
House" in one locality, in another may be found only 
"In the Woods," or fields. On the o;her side, if "all 
the thrushes, or all the sparrows of the entire region, 
were to be introduced or placed before the student in a 
body" it would undoubtedly produce some confusion. 
No "keys" or other means of easy indentification be- 
sides the pictures are given, but as an appendix is added 
a systematic list of all birds from the Quail and Grouse 
to the last of the Thrushes. 

The book is beautifully printed on a heavy paper and 
handsomely bound. The illustrations alone would 
make it well worth the price. — L. J. C. 



Long-Tailed Duck at Greenville. 

On the 31st of January a boy brought me a fine male 
specimen of a Long- tailed duck {Clangula hyinnlis). 
This duck is seldom met with so far from the Great 
Lakes and is the fii'st I have seen in seven years. It was 
shot in the city on Flat River. Percy Selous 

Greenville, Mich. 



Mr. Ralph Fisher, a former Ann Arbor ornithologist, is 
now located at Durango, Mexico. The University of 
Michigan Museum recently received a fine lot of bird 
skins from him, among which were two Avocets, a 
Massena Partridge and a pair of Imperial Wood- 
peckers. 

Mr. T. L. Hankinson, who graduated from the 
Michigan Agricultural College last summer, is now taking 
advanced work in Cornell University. Mr. Hankinson 
writes that he likes the region about Ithaca very much 
and puts in all his spare time collecting and observing. 
We are promised an article in the near future. 

Mr. O. B. Warren has a paper in the January Auk 
giving very interesting notes, together with four photo- 
graphs, on the nesting of the Canada Jay near Mahon- 
ing, Mich. 

Mr. B. Hall Swales, who went to California last 
spring expecting to practice law, was forced to return on 
account of ill health, and is now with the law firm of 
Flowers & Maloney in Detroit. While in the West Mr. 
Swales became a member of the Cooper Ornithological 
Club, but he always retained his interest in the M.O.C. 
and we heartily \\'elcome him back to take active work 
with us again. 



BriQUt ! Breezy ! Blrdsy ! 

TtieOspreu. 

A Monthly Magazine of Popular Ornithofogy. 
Profusely Illustrated. 

El-LIOTT CpuKS aud Thkodokk (iiJ.L. Editors. 
Waj/jce^ 4t.r>AM% JoifNSpNj, Assoei.ate Editor. 
LoiJisAGjLBsrZ;.FiiERf]?iyjArt. Editor. 

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Ul 



BULL&TIN OF THE 



ooper •Oniitiiologieal Cluti. 



Published in the interest of Californian 

Ornithology. 

16 Page Bi's-monthly. $1.00 per year. 

CHESTER HARLOW, Santa Clara, Cal., 
ICdilor in-Chief. 

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\ ,. rirllll \\\-,\\ <^,>ll,Mr,> i 1' { ) /, Mich. 



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